Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Imagine yourself, a female, working at Microsoft with many male co-workers. You are a vice president along with your co-partner, who is a male. When paychecks are issued you realize that he is getting paid 75% more than you, but both of you work at the same place with the same position and doing the same work. Do you think this is fair? In 1964, women normally were paid 59% of what men were paid (Ford). The disparity between the pay was based solely on gender and it is an unfair practice. Now, women are generally paid 79% of what men are being paid (Ford). There have been many conversations considering women not being paid equally as men, and there is a gender wage gap. If women are doing the same job as men, then women should receive the same pay as their male counterparts for equal work. We cannot discuss pay equity unless we take a brief look at the history of women and their roles in society from the beginning of this country up through today. The roles and responsibilities of wo men have changed since this country was established. When our country was established, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s jobs were in the homes doing housekeeping, bearing, and rearing children. They had no political voice nor power. There were some women, such as Abigail Adams and Judith Sargent Murray who began to voice their concerns and beliefs about female subjugation (Ã¢â¬Å"NWHM ExhibitÃ¢â¬ ). Slowly, men began to consider that women had a right to some form of education, but still believed that men were the public figureShow MoreRelatedEssay On Love Without Sex1715 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN AT WORK 1. Research topic In this article the research was focused on non-sexual relationships between men and woman in the workplace and the impact it has on the dynamics of the work group and the relationships with the co-workers, and the organizations they work for. There have been many studies done on sexual harassment in the workplace, but not on the benefits and potential costs of non-sexual relationships in the workplace between male and female workers. 2. Research methodRead MoreThe First Feminist Movement Of Today s Modern Society1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgive full-time and part-time employees Ã¢â¬â all of whom are women Ã¢â¬â healthcare, maternity leave, and the Ã¢â¬Å"Bitch minimum wageÃ¢â¬ of $15 an hour, Ã¢â¬Å"If Bitch can do it, why canÃ¢â¬â¢t you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âFalks. Women in today s modern society are facing inequality at their jobs. Precisely like unequal pay, sexual harassment, and terrible maternity leaves. They work the same job and get paid incredibly less than their male co-workers. Although it may take years, women deserve to have full equal rights as men. The first feministRead MoreThe Restaurant Enterprise1280 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrestaurant workers occupy seven of the ten lowest-paid occupations reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Women restaurant employees maintain an uncertain economic role, experiencing trouble at a much higher rate than male restaurant employees. This creates a greater financial insecurity in the industry, which may be attributed to their greater chance of being employed as tipped workers. Women occupy 52% of all restaurant employees, but are two-thirds (67%) of all tipped restaurant workers. TippedRead MoreThe World s Greatest Inventors909 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGreatest Inventors in History, 2011). Soon, women started inventions of their own. Nancy Johnson s ice cream maker, Maria Telkes solar-powered house, Grace Hopper s computer programming and Stephanie Kwolek s Kevlar are among famous women inventions (10 of the World s Greatest Female Inventors You Need to Know. (n.d.). It is generally assumed that men are more interested in technology than women are but that is not the case at all. Studies show that women are equally interested in technology butRead MoreGender And Gender Pay Gap1173 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesin other countries worldwide. This pay gap can affect women of all ages, race, religion and educational levels. What is gender pay gap? The gender pay gap is defined as the difference between women and menÃ¢â¬â¢s full time average yearly wages. The following equation will provide your with the pay gap expressed as a percentage: MenÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings minus womenÃ¢â¬â¢s earning divided by menÃ¢â¬â¢s earning. (Example: 36000-12000= 24000/36000=.67 or 67%). Sadly, women earn 78 to 79 cents on every dollar that men earn inRead MorePolice Enforcement And The Struggles1593 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesqualified officers of different gender, race, ethnicity, etc. Police officers that do not fit into the straight, white, male category often face difficulty in their job, from both society and their colleagues. The focus of this paper will be on women in law enforcement and the struggles they continue to face. In 1845, the New York City Police Department began to hire women. These women in the police department were called Ã¢â¬Å"matronsÃ¢â¬ (Felperin, 2015). In the dictionary, the word matron in relation to thisRead MoreFeminism And A Good Portion Of Women1624 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Feminism is a touchy subject to most people; generally males find it obsolete and women find it valuable to keep alive. There are a handful of males who are in favor of feminism and a good portion of women who are against feminism. There are different types of feminism such as the over the top all males shall die and the equal rights, equal pay. Those who are opposed to expressing feminism commonly believe it is out of date and that women are already treated equally; but those who are for expressingRead MoreGender Discrimination And Its Impact On Society1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessituations such women fighting for the right to vote. This opened up a path of feminism that would come to influence future gene rations on gaining equality. Other cases including the amount of income and job opportunities available in certain sectors. Not to mention that this stems from the gender expectations and stereotypes. As a woman myself, I too have faced gender discrimination in my workplace from co-workers simply based on my appearance. Particular acts of discrimination have placed women inside aRead MorePreventing Sexual Harassment in the Workplace1166 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesforms of sexual harassment. The literature mentions verbal, psychological and visual, and physical. Verbal sexual harassment is the use of vulgar language. On the other hand, psychological sexual harassment is when Ã¢â¬Å"A male co-worker or superior has shown an interest in female co-worker, but she is not keen on accepting his dates and have openly and clearly made known her disinterest and disapproval. Yet he persists, showering her with signs of his affection by leaving flowers on her table, droppingRead MoreSexual Harassmen t And The Workplace1349 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe presence of sexual harassment has become more and more prevalent due to the impact of women joining the workforce. Women are expanding into every aspect of the workforce and are no longer only in the administrative, and hospitality areas. The Meaning of Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is an unwelcomed act, which comes in many forms. A physical form of sexual harassment is touching a man or women anywhere on their person without their expressed permission. A non-physical form may consist
Monday, December 23, 2019
In 1996 the amendments to the fair Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) was created. This law was established to provide a 50 percent Ã¢â¬Å"tip creditÃ¢â¬ for tipped workers employers. It allowed tipped workers income from tips to count toward half the regular minimum hourly wage which was guaranteed to workers by the FLSA. Over the years, the federal tipped provision minimum wage dropped to at least 40 percent from 1980 to 1989. During that time period, the amount of tips received by workers has never exceeded half of the regular minimum wage that they should have received. Due to that problem, President Clinton in 1996 signed the Minimum Wage Increase Act. This law eliminated the FLSA provision that required tipped workers minimum wage to stay a certain percentage of the full minimum wage. When the bill signed by president Clinton passed the tipped credit stood at 50 percent. That year in October, the regular minimum wage went $4.25 to $4.75, but the $2.13 for tipped workers stayed the same, which brought the tip credit for employers to be above 50 percent. The federal minimum wage was raised in 2007, 3008, and 2009, but the wage for tipped workers still remain the same (Allegro Cooper, 2014). -When/how did the most recent proposed policy originate? In Bedford, Massachusetts when President Roosevelt was campaigning for reelection, a young lady passed him an envelope. He was unable to receive the note from her because a policeman threw her back into the crowd. President RooseveltShow MoreRelatedFair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA)758 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesinto place fair employment for those in the workforce. In 1938, congress would pass and President Roosevelt would sign the Wages and Hours Bill, more commonly known as the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA). This federal statute introduced a 44 hour, seven day work week, established the national minimum wage, guaranteed overtime pay in specific types of jobs at a rate of Ã¢â¬Å"time and a halfÃ¢â¬ , and it defines oppressive child labor, which prohibits most employment of minors. The FLSA applies to thoseRead MoreThe Affordable Care Act Amends The Flsa ( Fair Labor Standards Act )1737 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntrod uction Section 4207 of the Affordable Care Act amends the FLSA (Fair Labor Standards Act)- Break Time for Nursing Mothers Provisions Breastfeeding is one of the best methods for providing infants with a healthy start to life. Breast milk helps the body fight off various bacteria and viruses that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s child might be at risk for catching. Breastfed babies are thirty-six percent less likely to die from sudden infant death syndrome and are fifty-five percent likely to become obese later in lifeRead MorePatel V. Quality Inn South1328 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbenefits in the United States. Despite what individuals believe or disbelieve, under certain acts, codes, laws, and the U.S. Constitution, all aliens have rights, regardless of their immigration status. In this paper I will discuss an overview of the court case, Patel v, Quality Inn South, which deals with an undocumented alien who was able to recover funds from his former employer. I will explain the acts that impacted the case, whether I agree or disagree with the outcome of the case, and my personalRead MoreThe Fair Labor Standards Act Essay1747 Words Ã | Ã 7 PagesThe Fair Labor Standards Act The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) was passed by Congress on June 25th, 1938. The main objective of the act was to eliminate Ã¢â¬Å"labor conditions detrimental to the maintenance of the minimum standards of living necessary for health, efficiency and well-being of workers,Ã¢â¬  who engaged directly or indirectly in interstate commerce, including those involved in production of goods bound for such commerce. A major provision of the act establishedRead MoreLabor Law and Human Capital1206 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLabor Law and Human Capital Management Patti L. Jolicoeur Human Resource Management in the 21st Century HRM5004 Ã¢â¬â u03a1 October 30, 2010 Theresa Pavone Abstract There are many laws and regulations affecting HR Professionals and labor in the workplace. The U.S. Department of Labor oversees these and ensures organizational compliance. The relationship of labor laws and human capital management is a balance of analyzing workforce strengths and vulnerabilities and risk management toRead MoreEssay on Human Resources Analysis1329 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthere are many labor laws that the cooperate world must up hold by, these laws seem complicated but are actually quite simple once you break them down. For instance, the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938, as amended, provides for minimum standard for that of both wages and overtime entitlements by employees, and spells out the administrative procedures that needs to be taken by which covered all work time must be compensated for. FLSA also includes provisions related to child labor laws, equalRead MoreThis American (Working) Life1053 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages teachers, managers and others are n ot required by law to receive overtime pay (U.S. Cong. Federal Labor). These and other professions are labeled exempt from the Fair Labor Standards Act. An exempt profession, when put on a salary, is not protected by the FLSA and can work as many hours as required with no extra compensation. According to a new bill, S. 1747 The Computer Professionals Update Act , legislators would extend these exemptions to other IT professions (27-31). In a time when it is hardRead MoreAnalysis Of OSHA And FLSA1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespaper you will get a brief summary over Occupational Safety and Health Administration, as well as the Fair Labor Standards Act. Through professional experiences I have ran into many violations regarding unsafe work environments, retaliation, and not receiving the correct pay. Title VII, as well as OSHA prohibits retaliation against any employee, who has filed a complaint. The Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 gives employees the chance to file a complaint of unfa ir pay, in hopes to receive their lostRead MoreMinimum Wage Laws And Labor Unions905 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe Fair Labor Standards Act was created to establish a minimum federal wage to serve as a standard wage to reduce poverty and to secure economic growth is shared across the workforce. Today minimum wage is far below its historical levels and loses its value every year due to inflation. The minimum wage workforces are living close to poverty levels, and insist on the government raising the minimum wage. Sometimes the fight to raise the pay for workers goes unnoticed or unheard, so a labor unionRead MoreEssay Flsa Week 6612 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesDetermine whether the employee has a potential FLSA claim.Ã Explain the legal basis for your conclusion.Ã From an HR perspective list, explain and analyze five things an employer can do to ensure compliance with FLSA and avoid claims. After listening to the FLSA tutorial, Mike does not have a clam. In the tutorial, Mike cited that he was due 36 hours in overtime payment for working out because his work out were related to him building physical strength for work. He also cited that he was given workout
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Terrorism Introduction to Terrorism Susanne Prestininzi April 19, 2013 4:21 pm One cannot avoid long-standing debates, going back as far as Aristotle, over when it is politically and morally acceptable to use unconventional tactics such as violence and fear to bring about political and social change. History is replete with the ideas of great thinkers who believed that, under the right circumstances, unconventional tactics were not only smart, but a moral or civic duty. Religious leaders over the centuries have contributed thoughts about when unjust warfare is just, when Ã¢â¬Å"holy terrorÃ¢â¬ is justified, and military thinkers have advocated less-than-honorable tactics. We will write a custom essay sample on Terroism Yesterday, Future Chronology or any similar topic only for you Order Now Most terrorism throughout history has been directed against governments also called political or revolutionary terrorism, but terrorism can also be global or take the forms of state terrorism or state-sponsored terrorism. These latter types occur when governments turn on their own citizens, or try to stir up trouble among the citizenry of another nation. In fact, it was state terrorism that put modern use of the term Ã¢â¬Å"terrorismÃ¢â¬ in our English vocabulary. Title 22 of the U. S. Code, Section 2656f(d) defines terrorism as Ã¢â¬Å"premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. Ã¢â¬ (National Institute of Justice) The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines terrorism as Ã¢â¬Å"the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. (fbi. gov) Both definitions of terrorism share a common theme: the use of force intended to influence or instigate a course of action that furthers a political or social goal. In most cases, NIJ researchers adopt the FBI definition, which stresses methods over motivations and is generally accepted by law enforcement comm unities. The first story isnÃ¢â¬â¢t terrorism. According to the definition, is this terrorism? No, this action is not terrorism. The group who committed the action had an objective, which was to push the US out of Iraq. This is the nly trademark consistent with a terrorist activity. The target was solely a military target carrying U. S. soldiers and the terrorists employed a conventional weapon. Civilians were not targeted during this operation. Therefore, this action was a guerilla military action employed against an opposition force in a realm of conflict. These individuals were freedom fighters seeking to control their country. If I am wrong in my understanding it may be considered domestic terrorism. The second story again isnÃ¢â¬â¢t terrorism. This was a U. S. issile strike killed 25 people in PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s North Waziristan region that signaled that WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s use of drones against militants along the Afghan border will continue despite intensifying opposition from Pakistani leaders. The third one definitely is an act of terrorism by a suicide bomber terrorist. A suicide bomber steered a truck loaded with the equivalent of six tons of TNT down the airport road in Beirut, Lebanon. He plowed into the four-story barracks where more than 300 U. S. troops from a U. N. peacekeeping mission slept and detonated what the FBI called the largest non-nuclear bomb in history. This is an example of Ã¢â¬Å"Tactical TerrorÃ¢â¬ in order for the Free Islamic Revolutionary Movement in order to bring international attention to their cause. The last story of Columbine was an act of domestic terrorism. It was an act of terrorism. However, most people wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t think of it as a terrorist act. Terrorism mostly has to do with political ideology; however, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not restricted to that. In a perverted way, the perpetrators of Columbine were making a statement, and that is terrorism. There are several different typologies of terrorism Terrorism classified by place 1. Domestic Ã¢â¬â by residents of a country within that country 2. .International Ã¢â¬â by representatives of a country against another country 3. Non-state Ã¢â¬â extremism and revolution for its own sake 4. State-sponsored Ã¢â¬â by a government against its own people or in support of international terrorism against another government 5. Internecine Ã¢â¬â conflict that spills over into another country or fought on foreign soil Terrorism Classified by Personality Trait 1. Crazies Ã¢â¬â strong survival attitude, but not based in reality; self-centered; goals clear only to perpetrator; irrational and unpredictable; strikes at random 2. Crusaders Ã¢â¬â sacrificial, death attitude; blends politics and religion; seldom willing to negotiate; task-oriented and indifferent to risk; seeks publicity and largest group possible. 3. Criminals Ã¢â¬â strong self-preservation attitude; selfish; seeks gain and is task-oriented; avoids high risk; predictably targets small groups (Hacker 1976) Terrorism Classified by Purpose 1. Political Ã¢â¬â for ideological and political purposes 2. Nonpolitical Ã¢â¬â for private purposes or gain 3. Quasi-terrorism Ã¢â¬â skyjacking and hostage taking 4. Limited political Ã¢â¬â ideological but not revolutionary 5. Official or state Ã¢â¬â used by nation against nation or people Terrorism Classified by Target 1. Mass terror Ã¢â¬â targets general population 2. Dynastic terror Ã¢â¬â selective targeting of individuals or groups 3. Random terror Ã¢â¬â targets anybody in wrong place at wrong time 4. Focused random terror Ã¢â¬â targets specific public places frequented by opposition 5. Tactical terror Ã¢â¬â attacks government or politically attractive targets (Combs 2003) Terrorism Classified by Issue 1. Revolutionary Ã¢â¬â aims to replace the existing government by drawing out repressive responses which can be exposed as inhumane (Red Army Faction, PLO, Hizballah) 2. Political Ã¢â¬â heavily armed groups tending to be focused around supremacy, government intrusion, or religious revisionism (Aryan Nation, Posse Comitatus, Freemen) 3. Nationalist Ã¢â¬â promotes the interests of a minority or religious group that has been persecuted under majority rule (Sikh radicals, Muslim fundamentalism) 4. Cause-Based Ã¢â¬â groups devoted to a social or religious cause using violence to address their grievances (Islamic Holy War, Abortion clinic bombings) 5. Environmental Ã¢â¬â groups dedicated to slowing down development they believe is harming animals (Animal Liberation Front, Earth 1st) 6. State-sponsored Ã¢â¬â when a repressive regime forces its citizens into total obedience (Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, Iraq, Sudan, Haiti) 7. Nuclear Ã¢â¬â outlaw states possessing nuclear threats (Libya, North Korea) 8. GenocideÃ¢â¬â when a government seeks to wipe out a minority group in its territory (Cambodia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Iraq, Turkey) Reference Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century Cynthia C. COmbs www. nij. com www. cia. gov Retrieved: April 19, 2013 3:12 pm You +1Ã¢â¬â¢d this publicly. 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Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss the unemployment rate, types, issues, and government policy of Australia and comment unemployment in various states of Australia. You need to specify in different region like NSW, WA, Tasmania, Qld or SA. Answer: Introduction Unemployment occurs when individuals who don't have work are effectively looking for one. The unemployment rate of a specific nation decides the level of unemployment in respect to the total labour force. It quantifies the rate of the work force that is unemployed. The most vital reason for unemployment is recession. At the point when an economy encounters a time of recession, the total yield level in the economy goes down and the level of occupation likewise falls. The unemployment rate is pretty much positive around the globe; in a few nations it is high, particularly in developing and least developed economies though in a few nations it is low similar to in the developed economies. However, unemployment rates change according to economic conditions according to the behaviour of other macroeconomic parameters. Rate of Unemployment in Australia Australia being a created economy has a by and large low unemployment level with intermittent vacillations coming about because of different financial stuns. The ebb and flow occasionally balanced unemployment rate in Australia is 5.70% with 723,300 unemployed individuals (as of April 2016). The figure has been steady since March 2016. 10,800 new employments have been created in the economy expanding the quantity of unemployed individuals by 400. Over the period 1980 to 2016, the normal unemployment rate in Australia has been 6.94%. Be that as it may, in October 1992, the enlisted rate of unemployment was as high as 11.10%. Another anomaly was recorded in February 2008 with unemployment rate tumbling to 4%. The present unemployment rate of 5.70% in Australia is recorded as the most minimal rate subsequent to the government Coalition assumed control in 2013. However, the unemployment rate had been expected to ascend to 5.9% in March from the enrolled 5.8% in February, the outcomes have been entirely diverse. The Australian economy encountered an expansion of 26,100 number of individuals with occupations in the month of March, an expectation that was relied upon to be at 20,000. The quantity of low maintenance occupations has ascended by 34,900 though the quantity of all day employments has fallen by 8,800. The Australian economy has encountered an ascent of 2.2% in the quantity of utilized individuals and a fall of 4.6% in the quantity of unemployed individuals in the previous one year. As indicated by the Employment Minister of Australia, the occupation creation and vocation development is a result of the effective execution of monetary approaches by the Coalition government. The fallin g unemployment number should increase monetary development from the interest side of the economy by advancing the certainty of the shoppers. This is fundamentally on the grounds that employer stability is a principle determinant of the family unit utilization level. The interest rate has been predictable at 64.9%. The unemployment statistics of Australia over the period 1980 to 2015 is represented in the following table: YEAR / COMPONENT UNEMPLOYMENT, (% OF TOTAL LABOUR FORCE) 1980 6.1 1981 5.8 1982 7.2 1983 10 1984 9 1985 8.3 1986 8.1 1987 8.1 1988 7.2 1989 6.2 1990 6.9 1991 9.6 1992 10.8 1993 10.9 1994 9.8 1995 8.5 1996 8.6 1997 8.5 1998 7.8 1999 7 2000 6.3 2001 6.8 2002 6.4 2003 5.9 2004 5.4 2005 5 2006 4.8 2007 4.4 2008 4.2 2009 5.6 2010 5.2 2011 5.1 2012 5.2 2013 5.7 2014 6.1 The pattern of the unemployment rate is shown in the graph below: As can be seen from the above chart, the unemployment rate has recorded an exceptionally fluctuating pattern over the concerned period going from a low of 4% to a high of around 11%. Be that as it may, it has stayed at around 6% in the course of recent years with infrequent high and low. Types and Issues of Unemployment in Australia Numerous sorts of unemployment are common in the Australian economy. The three principle sorts of unemployment are: frictional, structural and cyclical. Alternate sorts are natural, long term, classical and seasonal. Frictional unemployment is brought on because of the time slack that perseveres when specialists attempt to discover employments and firms attempt to discover individuals to procure for occupations. Structural unemployment is an aftereffect of auxiliary changes in the economy brought on by changes in innovation or in the general interest design. Cyclical unemployment is brought about by changes in the business cycle, particularly because of total interest lack from the full-job level of yield. Natural unemployment rate compares to the circumstance when the quantity of individuals looking for occupations is equivalent to the quantity of individuals landing positions. Common unemployment dependably exists notwithstanding when an economy is in a prosperous state. The most minimal level of unemployment recorded in the Australian economy is 2.53% in 1953 which came about after the Korean War. Long term unemployment alludes to the circumstance when a man has been unsuccessfully looking for an occupation for more than 12 months. This might be a consequence of the absence of instruction, preparing or abilities and the powerlessness to secure a reasonable job. Classical unemployment (genuine compensation unemployment) results when because of pay unbending nature issues, wages are higher than the balance level. Seasonal unemployment is an effect of season changes that may impact the business of a man, for instance, a frozen yogurt seller (for the most part unemployed amid winter). All these sorts of unemployment are found in the Australian economy. These are brought about because of the different variables said for the particular sorts. Different macroeconomic results and business stuns offer ascent to these sorts of unemployment. Government arrangements and financial development likewise decide the rates, sorts and levels of unemployment. Since the post-war blast that finished in the 1970s, the blast and subsidence cycles in the economy have offered approach to unmanageable and fluctuating unemployment rates. The most obstructing type of unemployment, that is, long term unemployment (% of total population) of the Australian economy is represented as follows: YEAR / PARAMETER LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT (% of total population) 1980 19.2 1981 19.5 1982 18.8 1983 25.2 1984 31 1985 30.8 1986 27.6 1987 28 1988 27.8 1989 24.8 1990 21.1 1991 23.7 1992 33.4 1993 36.7 1994 36.1 1995 32 1996 28.5 1997 31.2 1998 32.9 1999 31.3 2000 28.3 2001 23.9 2002 22.4 2003 21.5 2004 20.6 2005 18.2 2006 18.1 2007 15.4 2008 14.9 2009 14.7 2010 18.6 2011 18.9 2012 19 2013 19.1 2014 21.8 The pattern of long-term unemployment rate can be shown as follows: The long haul unemployment rate has demonstrated a fluctuating pattern over the concerned period. Be that as it may, it has run from around 15% to as high as above 35%. This is the most ruining sort of unemployment that structures an extraordinary obstacle to monetary development. Amid the second quarter of 2014, Australia having an unemployment rate of around 6% was vulnerable against confronting auxiliary long term unemployment as proclaimed by the monetary powers. It is guaranteed that Australia has one of the most elevated quality business level among the created economies. This incorporates the gaining level, employer stability and the nature of the workplace. Policies Adopted by the Government to Address Unemployment The social approaches embraced by the administration of Australia uncover that future work governments will endeavour to expand unemployment advantages furthermore help the long haul unemployed mass of the populace. They will expand the speculation on training, family payments will be made more straightforward. Work market projects will be reproduced alongside guaranteeing the assurance of the privileges of the representatives. In any case, there is a fundamental issue of imbalance a by-result of unemployment that endures in the Australian economy. This is representing a snag to the development procedure of Australia and will subsequently bring about more unemployment. The different measures embraced by the legislature to address the issue of imbalance will likewise resolve the issue of unemployment during the time and the other way around. Some of these arrangements are: Focusing mostly on essential training which may help an individual conquer the fundamental burden by enlarging financial efficiency. The unemployment advantages accumulating to different segments of the general public including single guardians ought to be sufficiently expanded. Adopting and executing new approaches to drag individuals out of the long haul unemployment trap and improving the present work market strategies. To guarantee that youngsters have an essential way of life, family payments ought to be reformulated. Ensuring full job to ensure the privileges of specialists with changing work economic situations. Social approaches hence received ought to be thoroughly actualized and the administration needs to guarantee that through the foundation of an association that would take into account the same. Bill Shorten in one of his talks amid the decision crusade announced that he would guarantee full business in the economy. As indicated by him, the unemployment figures among the Australian youth is stunning and consequently arrangements must be embraced to address these issues. He included that one of his principle targets will be to make the workplace more adaptable and versatile. Aptitudes and preparing among the Australian youth ought to be enhanced to help them procure appropriate employments later on. Alongside employer stability, training and duty framework issues will likewise be tended to. The work rate in Australia has demonstrated promising prospects over the previous year. Be that as it may, the employment looking for strategy has turned out to be moderately hard in Western Australia when contrasted with the eastern locale where things are enough less demanding and more adaptable. In this manner work prospects are shifting crosswise over locales and a part of the unemployment rate has gotten to be district particular. The strategies intended for the diminishment of unemployment are arranged by kind of unemployment pervasive in the economy: Patterned unemployment issues are tended to through execution of financial and fiscal strategies. Expansionary financial approach and facilitating of money related strategies animate total interest in the economy accordingly decreasing the issue of interest lack and thusly the issue of recurrent unemployment. The Australian economy has encountered the inadequacy of money related and monetary strategies in diminishing auxiliary unemployment. This can rather be tended to by means of usage of microeconomic strategies like work business sector arrangements, diverse occupation programs by the administration, distinctive ability enlarging instruction and preparing programs executed by the legislature to individuals adjust to basic changes. Work market arrangements to address the issues of the impeded individuals of the work power has increased more weightage as of late. The 2011 Commonwealth Budget declared various arrangement measures to expand the support rate of the distraught gatherings and to help them fabricate their expertise level. Amid the Global Financial Crisis, the Australian Labour market has been extremely adaptable enrolling a development of just 1.6% in the unemployment level. The macroeconomic approaches embraced by the Australian government in the previous years have ended up being very viable and fruitful in this way decreasing the unemployment figures. The advantages of these progressions have been all around procured by all segments of society including the young, the more seasoned labourers and the general population experiencing long term unemployment. In January 2016, the unemployment rate in Australia had come to 6%. In any case, despite that, the Reserve Bank of Australia kept the financing costs untransformed. To trigger changes in the budgetary parameters of the bank, perceptions for more than 6 months are to be taken such that the bank can impact its approaches to address the issues of unemployment. The spike in unemployment had been knowledgeable about the month of February moreover. In any case, the fall in the level of unemployment in April facilitated the obligations of the Reserve Bank of Australia such that they no more expected to slice loan fees. Unemployment in Different States of Australia Unemployment rates are different across the different regions of Australia. The following table shows the unemployment rates across territories for 2016: LABOUR FORCE REGION UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (March 2016) Australian Capital Territory 4.3 Northern Territory 4.5 New South Wales 5.3 Western Australia 5.5 Victoria 5.7 Queensland 6.1 Tasmania 6.8 South Australia 7.2 This is shown in the following diagram: As can be seen from the above figure and the table, South Australia records the most extreme rate of unemployment though the Australian Capital Territory has the least rate of unemployment. In dropping rates of unemployment alternate areas are Tasmania, Queensland, Victoria, Western Australia, New South Wales and the Northern Territory individually. The distinctions among the rates can be ascribed to various variables. In March 2016, a great many more individuals were utilized in South Australia contrasted and the earlier year. Be that as it may, the state economy continued encountering different monetary difficulties. The record high rates in South Australia are for the most part due to absence of venture and disappointment of state government arrangements. Enormous foundation tasks are required to be conveyed to the state to elevate the financial condition. The unemployment rate in Queensland expanded significantly a rate point. Its pattern unemployment rate stayed enduring at 6%. Its occupation segment has moved from the mining business to the administrations business as employments were lost in the previous. New South Wales has recorded the most reduced unemployment rate in all of Australia at a 10-months stretch. This is basically because of the "broadened and light" financial states of the state. Expanded spending on rails, streets, schools and healing facilities have additionally fortified the monetary development which has deciphered into the low unemployment rate. 16,000 new all day occupations have been made in Victoria along these lines expanding the job rate. The distinction in the unemployment rates of the diverse states emerges as a result of the refinement amongst mining and non-mining states. It mirrors the separate financial execution set up by the distinctive states inside the Australian economy. Conclusion The current monetary situation of the Australian economy concerning the unemployment measurements appears to be satisfactorily steady. To keep up this consistency and low unemployment rate, legitimate government approaches should be figured and proficiently executed. The impacts of the administration projects and arrangements ought to be complex spreading over all the conditions of the economy. Total request and yield need to help up to produce business opportunities alongside expanding interest in the foundation and modern areas. The most imperative issue to be tended to is long haul unemployment since that prompts de-skilling of the potential work power. Additionally, more extensive issues like disparity and distributive angles likewise must be contemplated while actualizing the approaches. References Australias unemployment rate stays flat at 5.7% in April, viewed 23 May 2016, Tackling rising inequality a priority for government, Labor research finds , viewed 23 May 2016, Unemployment in surprise jump to 6% but RBA likely to keep rates on hold, viewed 24 May 2016, rospects and most are averse to risk, viewed 23 May 2016.
Friday, November 29, 2019
The fundamentals of the disaster While describing recent events which took place in Japan, I would like to tell a few words about the nuclear basics. First of all, I have to point out that the situation with nuclear power plant was under control. In other words, there were no defects of the equipment; so, the risk to the public was minimal.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Nuclear Power Plant specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is a need to clarify that atomic fission was used as a heat source; no fossil fuel was used. When speaking about atomic fission, one is to understand that I am talking about uranium. Of course, one can suppose that the risk was really great as everybody is familiar with the situation in Chernobyl. However, in this case the nuclear chain reaction had to be uncontrolled. Such situation with nuclear power plant in Japan was impossible. Another major risk was associated with the process of o verheating. Taking into account the risks, I have to state that the plant was protected from regrettable consequences. The cladding, the reactor vessel, the containment building, and a dry-wall building were the barriers to protect the nuclear power plant. It is also necessary to admit that Fukushima used the reactors BWRs. Of course, engineers had a plan to prevent the consequences of the earthquake. Keith Yost (2011) says that, Ã¢â¬Å"During regular operation, this chimney would be filled with a liquid/steam bubble mixture from the boiling water Ã¢â¬â in an emergency, this volume can be packed with surplus coolant, effectively raising the thermal capacitance of the reactor vesselÃ¢â¬ (para. 8). So, one may ask what happened. At Friday, when the earthquake took place, Ã¢â¬Å"the reactor automatically inserted its control rods into the core and ceased the fission of the nuclear fuel. Reactor power was at 6.5 percent, and full cooling was in effectÃ¢â¬ (Yost, 2011, para. 9). Unfortunately, the on-site generators were wrecked by the earthquake. These destroyed generators couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t activate the coolant pumps. Further consequences are well-known. The effects of radiation leak When earthquake in Japan took place, some articles concerning radiation leak at the nuclear power plant appeared. They said that radiation levels were increasing; however, authorities stated that there was no danger. Another interesting position, I would like to disclose is the similarities between the Chernobyl disaster and the disaster in Japan. Generally, I would like to point out that there were no similarities between two situations, as the disaster of 1986 was a man-made one; while the situation with nuclear power plant belonged to natural disasters.Advertising Looking for essay on other technology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While speaking about the effects of radiation on human beings, I have to state that it destroys living tissues. Radiation destroys the gastrointestinal system, the blood system, the immune system, etc. Moreover, it can cause cancer and genetic mutations. Jamie Epstein (2011) is of the opinion that, Ã¢â¬Å"radiation can cause many harsh consequences to any form of lifeÃ¢â¬âwhether it be human, plants or animalsÃ¢â¬ (para. 2). Radioactive materials have different span of life. For instance, Ã¢â¬Å"Strontium-90 is only radioactive for 53 days, Uranium-235 in the environment will remain radioactive for over 700 million years, Uranium-238 will remain radioactive for 4.5 billion years, and Rubidium remains radioactive for 47 million yearsÃ¢â¬ (Epstein, 2011, para. 6). When speaking about the global meaning of the disaster, Stephen Brozac and Henry Bassman (2011) state that, The worldwide implications of the event are becoming apparent: though a major leak in a maintenance pit of the plant has been plugged, there is still a great likelihood that significant amounts of radioactive water will continue to be released into the Pacific Ocean; the worldwide Just-In-Time manufacturingAdvertising We will write a custom essay sample on Nuclear Power Plant specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More cycle has been interrupted; and increased levels of radiation have been detected on the U.S. East Coast (para. 2). The importance of safety While speaking about nuclear power plant construction several aspects must be taken into account. So, it is necessary to consider the construction cost of building, the operating cost, the cost of waste disposal, and the cost of decommissioning. However, the most important point, which must be taken into consideration, is safety of nuclear power plants. The major safety components include control of radioactivity, maintenance of core cooling, and maintenance of barriers. The last component is extremely important to prevent the spreading of radiation. According to Nuclearinfo.ne t, radiation doses at nuclear power plant must be thoroughly controlled. Ã¢â¬Å"Monitoring of individual doses and of the work environment, limit on the time a worker spends in areas with significant radiation levels, physical shielding, and the handling of equipment via remote in the core of the reactorÃ¢â¬ (Nuclearinfo.net, 2012, para. 9) are recognized to be the most important procedures, which prevent radiation doses rising. Of course, it is necessary to regulate the neutron flux. To reduce the level of the radioactivity, it is necessary to reduce the neutron flux. If there is no opportunity to use water to cool the system, sodium or sodium salts can replace water. Thus, the chemical elements will be used as a coolant. Finally, it is better to build nuclear power plants away from towns, cities or villages.Advertising Looking for essay on other technology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Brozac, S. Bassman, H. (2011). Fukushima: A Nuclear Threat to Japan, the U.S.Ã and the World. Web. Epstein, J. (2011). Devastating Effects to Environment due to JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s RadiationÃ Leaks. Web. Nuclearinfo.net. (2012). Safety Mechanisms of a Nuclear Power Reactor. Web. Yost, K. (2011). Opinion: What Happened at the Fukushima Reactor? Web. This essay on Nuclear Power Plant was written and submitted by user Slayback to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. 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Monday, November 25, 2019
Higher Education Essay Example Higher Education Essay Higher Education Essay All education,primary,secondary and further education ,should be free to all people and paid for by the government. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? The education system varies from country to country. I tend to believe that the government should pay for the elementary education. In another word, the primary and secondary education should be free. But whether we should pay for the further education or not should be thought over. The reason for the government to burden the cost of basic education is that all of the civilization should be based on people [Individuals ]with basic knowledge of the world. This kind of knowledge, such as the ability of reading or writing which can be used in daily life, should be acquired at schools. Without such knowledge, it may be hard for people[individuals] to earn a living. So I think [Therefore, ]the government should encourage people [The youth]to attend schools to get [for]basic education. And the best way to do this is to provide free education at primary and secondary levels. However, it is another story about the further education[further education, however, is another story]. Colleges and universities should hire professors or better teachers who can offer advanced knowledge. Teachers who are available when students need higher level knowledge. And this can [Which may result in]result in higher costs. It will be difficult for the government to pay for all of the money and it is reasonable to ask the students to share a part of the cost. ? For those students whose family can afford the fees, the government should not pay the money for them. On the other hand, for those poorer students, the government should give them some financial help, for example in form of scholarship. Finally, I conclude that the government should pay for the primary and secondary education. For those who want to receive higher education, it is reasonable to charge them some money if they ca n afford it.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Great Captains - Essay Example A number of individuals from many walks of life find it quite fascinating to study war strategy over the past several thousand years and how the same strategies have been employed, despite the fact that warfare has changed dramatically overtime. Being that warfare has changed over the past one hundred fifty years, the study of captains, such as Napoleon, Ulysses Grant, and Frederick the Great are still valid for a modern military professional, as it is these three individuals who have contributed largely in shaping our civilization and making it what it is today. One reason that the study of captains, such as Napoleon, Ulysses Grant, and Frederick the Great are still valid for a modern military professional is that a military professional can learn a great deal from these individuals. For instance, from the study of these great individuals, a modern military professional can learn to be an effective leader. The modern military can study the art of war from all three of these great captains and possibly employ some of these strategies in today's modern war fair. Some may challenge that learning the strategies of these captains is useless for a modern military professional, since war fair has changed so much since these men were alive. Those supporting this argument state that the weapons during the time of these captains were not as sophisticated as they are today, and wars are fought on a much larger scale than in times past. These captains did not deal with the challenges that we do now. Though these arguments are true and valid, the reason s for engaging in war are the same as they were since the beginning of humankind, and because of this, the study of such captains is relevant, as such study helps the future leader in deciding what he should and should not do to see to it that his outcomes are successful. If these three captains have employed a particular strategy that brought them a plethora of success, then there is no problem at all making use of that same strategy today. In regards to this, Paret and Clausewitz state that the purpose of war has always stayed the same, even though we now use more sophisticated weapons. Not to mention, the tactic to attack the enemy with the utmost force, to concentrate on what allows the enemy to resist and do away with it so the enemy can resist no longer and the desire to annihilate the enemy has been the same. Furthermore, the definition of war has also stayed the same, as war is merely a way for us to force the enemy to do our will and see to it that it is carried out (Chapte r One, Book One). Another reason that the study of these great captains is valid for a modern military professional is that a great deal can be learned from their use of intelligence. On the subject of intelligence as it pertains to war, Paret and Clausewitz state that those who are savages normally fight solely motivated by passion. There is no real intelligence on their part, as they are going to do whatever it takes to destroy their enemy. On the other hand, civilized peoples actually take the time out to sit and strategize how they will attack their enemy, defeat them, and successfully conquer them, if conquering is part of the reason that the war is being fought (Chapter One, Book One). These three great captains, no doubt, took the time to intelligently strategize how they would advance upon their enemies. Surely, they did feel some passion of hatred for their enemy, hence the reason they would attack them in the first place, as one would not attack someone they
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Experimenter Effects - Research Paper Example To improve experimenter effects for this article implies the reduction of the experimenterÃ¢â¬â¢s personal traits, behaviour, and expectancies in the ability of using Magnet Hospital program in reducing RN shortages. To prove that this program can effectively reduce nursing shortage, the experiment would employ the use of double-blind research. In this research, several hospitals are chosen with an acute care and step-down units. Some of the RNs in the acute care or the step-down units under the supervision of the advanced practice nurse. In My opinion, this approach would reduce experimenter effects, since error is reduce from the selection of a number of hospitals. Secondly, the experiment is carried out on either the acute care or step-down unit nurses in any of the hospitals. Thirdly, the margin of biasness, assumptions, perceptions and beliefs in conclusions, would b reduced by having a number of the RN nurses under the advanced practice nurse, who may or may not have a major leadership role in decision making, policy making, or design development. This method would work since the experimenter is not aware of the subjects under the experiment, due to the variance in
Monday, November 18, 2019
Evaluate Bribery in the context of International Strategic Marketing - Essay Example in -- in other words, to "do as the Romans do." When a corporate official is faced with real situations abroad, this advice can give rise to conflicts and ambiguity, when actual situations require responses which are incompatible with the ethical norms in the home country. Payment of a tip to a government official or employee in the home country intended to facilitate licensing can be considered bribery, and therefore subject to legal consequences, at home; however, in a foreign country it may be a standard operating procedure that can facilitate and expedite action. The cost of refusing to comform to local practice can be result in significant losses which are disproportionate in relation to the small amount of "bribe" money. The international marketer can face a difficult dilemma when he has to respond to situations where there is no local law, where local practices forgive a certain behavior, or the companywilling to Ã¢â¬Å" do what is necessaryÃ¢â¬ is favored over the company that refuses to engage in practices that are not ethical. The issue of bribery and corruption is not extensively covered in international or global marketing textbooks. The subject is often located under the rubric of legal environment (subtopic: ethics and regulations); cultural environment, (as in Hill 2005; Verna and Sarathy 1993). Or it is discussed as part of international promotions (Verna and Sarathy). For the most part the subject presents the the relevant US statute (FCPA) and analyzes its features and implications for the business person and marketer. A more comprehensive treatment, including its history and philosophical basis is found in textbooks dealing with the business environment (such as Baron 1997) and legal environment (such as Jennings 1997). This study will deal with the issue of bribery from the Western viewpoint, particularly that of the United States, being the first country to enact a law prohibiting its practice by its companies abroad. The Foreign Corrupt
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Scattering of Light Callum Lim Contents 1. Rayleigh scattering 1.1 Mid-day 1.2 Sunrise and sunset 1.3 Night-time 2. Mie scattering 2.1 Clouds 3. Pollution 3.1 Light pollution 3.2 Haze 4. Personal reflections 5. Conclusion 6. Bibliography 1. Rayleigh scattering When a beam of light travels through particles which are smaller than its wavelength, it is possible these particles scatter the light beam in a process known as Rayleigh scattering. This process is visible everyday whenever sunlight is scattered by the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere. As sunlight is composed of different visible wavelengths of light Ã¢â¬â mainly Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo and Violet; ROYGBIV Ã¢â¬â not all sunlight has the same probability of being scattered. It is possible to determine the amount of Rayleigh scattering that the different visible wavelengths in sunlight experience by calculating the intensity of the individual scattered wavelengths. The intensity of light scattered by small particles (I) depends on the intensity (I0) and wavelength (Ã ») of the light source, the distance of the light source from the particle (R), the scattering angle (Ã ¸), the refractive index of the particle (n), and the diameter of the particle (d). The relationship between these variables is illustrated in the following equation: (Seinfeld Pandis , 2006) 1.1 Mid-day When the Sun is directly overhead, all the wavelengths of light originating from it travel the same distance from the Sun and through our atmosphere and are scattered by the same medium (nitrogen and oxygen molecules). Hence, I0, R, Ã ¸, n and d remain constant and the above equation can be simplified into: With this equation, it can be seen that the intensity of scattered light is inversely proportional to the fourth power of a lightÃ¢â¬â¢s wavelength and that the shorter a lightÃ¢â¬â¢s wavelength, the more intensely visible it is. Hence, as GBIV light (400nm to 500nm) have shorter wavelengths compared to ROY light (570nm to 700nm), GBIV light is more intensely visible to us. Due to the shorter wavelengths of GBIV light, they also have higher chances of encountering atmospheric molecules than the ROY light and getting scattered by it, as shown in the figure below. Although scattered light continues travelling in a random direction, a greater proportion of GBIV than ROY light reaches our eyes because GBIV wavelengths are shorter and more easily scattered. However, as our eyes detect the blue component in GBIV light that has been scattered the easiest (Leong, 2006), we see the mid-day sky as blue in colour. 1.2 Sunrise and sunset At sunrise and sunset, sunlight has to travel through a longer distance through the atmosphere than at mid-day before it is visible. As a result, sunlight encounters more atmospheric molecules during these times which results in more scattering of light. Hence, with this increased distance, even the higher wavelengths (ROY) are scattered, and this colours the sky reddish-orange. However, it is only at the horizons that the sky looks reddish-orange because the multiple rays of sunlight travel through different distances in the atmosphere due to refraction. As seen in the figure above, sunlight ray A penetrates the atmosphere very minimally and experiences very little refraction. As a result, it travels the shortest distance through the atmosphere and gets very little scattering. Thus, only the violet and indigo wavelengths are scattered. Sunlight ray B enters more deeply into atmosphere than A and gets refracted more. Hence, it has to travel a longer distance through the atmosphere which scatters most of BIV wavelengths. Before it leaves the atmosphere, however, the remaining wavelengths are scattered which results in a portion of the sky looking yellow. Sunlight ray C penetrates deepest into the atmosphere and experiences the most refraction. As it travels the longest distance of the three rays, its higher red and orange wavelengths are also scattered. This gives a portion of the sky its reddish-orange colour. Hence, this is why only the horizons are coloured reddish-orange while the rest of the sky remains blue during sunrise and sunset. 1.3 Night-time Sunlight reflected off the moon undergoes Rayleigh scattering as well, although its effects are not as visible. As mentioned earlier, the intensity of the light source (I0) and the distance of the light source from the particle (R) also affects the how intensely visible the scattered light is. Although the Moon is much closer to the Earth than the Sun, the light we get from it is much less intense than that from the Sun, thus reducing the intensity of scattered light. 2. Mie scattering Aside from Rayleigh scattering, another type of scattering, in the form of Mie scattering, exists. This occurs when sunlight encounters molecules which are comparable in size to its composite wavelengths. As a result, all visible wavelengths in sunlight are almost scattered equally. 2.1 Clouds On a daily basis, Mie scattering is observable when we look at clouds. As water vapour in clouds tend to be 20 micrometres in diameter (University of Illinois, 2010), all visible wavelengths in sunlight are scattered by clouds equally, thus giving clouds their white appearance. Bigger clouds or rain clouds usually look darker because they are bigger and contain more water vapour molecules. Thus, as these clouds scatter most of the sunlight that pass through them, very little sunlight exits through the bottoms of these clouds. Besides appearing white or grey, clouds can also appear reddish at sunrise or sunset. This is attributed to both Mie and Rayleigh scattering. At these times, sunlight travels a longer distance through the atmosphere and most of the shorter GBIV wavelengths are scattered just as sunlight enters the atmosphere. Hence, the further sunlight travels through the atmosphere, the greater the proportion of longer ROY wavelengths that remain. Thus, it is mainly the ROY wavelengths that are able to reach and get scattered by the clouds; and this causes clouds to appear reddish. Mie scattering is also observable on nights when moonlight is scattered by clouds in the sky and results in clouds appearing white. 3. Pollution 3.1 Light pollution On certain late nights, it is also possible to observe red clouds in the sky even when there is no source of light in the atmosphere. This phenomenon is a result of denser clouds scattering light from the city back down onto Earth. As Singapore is mostly lit up by yellow or orange light from streetlights, a greater proportion of longer wavelengths are scattered by the clouds thus making the clouds look red. However, if the clouds do not contain enough water vapour molecules and hence, are not large or dense enough, less city light is scattered. Thus, the redness visible in these clouds is not as pronounced and this is why red clouds are not always visible at night. Besides Mie scattering, city light also undergoes Rayleigh scattering at night, although its effect is not as obvious as scattered sunlight. While city light is mostly emitted in longer wavelengths and do not experience much Rayleigh scattering, its shorter wavelengths are greatly scattered by atmospheric particles as it travels through the atmosphere. Consequently, the shorter wavelengths of light scattered through Rayleigh scattering, together with the light scattered by clouds, increase the ambient brightness of SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s night sky and inadvertently blocks out dimmer interstellar light that would otherwise be visible. Thus, this is why it is quite difficult to see deep-space objects in most of Singapore with the naked-eye. 3.2 Haze When dust and smoke particles from haze are present in the atmosphere, it becomes denser and causes light to undergo both Rayleigh and Mie scattering. This is because these particles typically range from 2.5 micrometres to 10 micrometres in diameter (Association of South East Asian Nations, 2014) and hence, are larger than visible light wavelengths. Thus, when the PSI is in the moderate range or worse, it is possible to see that all light appears muted and dull. At night, haze also causes Mie scattering of city light not only in clouds but throughout the sky. This results in significant portions night sky taking on a reddish glow. 4. Personal reflections Through this project, I now have a better understanding of why the sky and clouds appear to change in colour over time as well as why it is relatively difficult to observe the cosmos in a brightly lit city at night. The latter was evident when our group spent a day at Changi beach to photograph the colours changes in the sky. Just as we were leaving the seaside after twilight, we noticed that were more stars were visible in the night sky than what can normally be seen in the brighter urban areas of Singapore. Unfortunately, we did not have a good enough camera that was able to photograph the stars in the night sky then. One of the interesting things I have learnt from this project is also why the sky looks red on hazy nights, even when there is no light from the Sun or Moon. This is primarily due to light pollution that is scattered back down to Earth by smoke and dust particles in the atmosphere. Similarly, denser clouds at night appear red due to light pollution being scattered back down by water vapour within them. It is also because of light pollution that the adage Ã¢â¬Å"red sky at night, sailorÃ¢â¬â¢s delightÃ¢â¬ no longer holds true all the time, especially in cities that are brightly lit up at night. This is because the red sky at night might not be due to a high-pressure system in the west bringing calm weather, but due to manmade causes mentioned above (Teitel, 2012). This manmade phenomenon also has an implication on our circadian rhythms that act as our natural body clocks. Brighter skies at night could confuse our brains into thinking that it is daytime (and not time to sleep), thus disrupting our sleeping patterns and leaving us feeling jet-lagged. In the near future, the night sky might become even brighter as gas-discharge lights are replaced by light-emitting diode (LED) lights, which emit a greater concentration of shorter wavelengths (Teitel, 2012). Our circadian rhythms might be even more negatively affected by this increase in blue light, as they are especially sensitive to shorter wavelengths. A potential solution to mitigate this problem is to use warm white lights that emit minimal blue wavelengths. Additionally, understanding how light is affected by minute particles has also allowed humankind to apply these principles in real-life, such as in optical fibres. In optical fibres, light is used to transmit signals through cables made of transparent silica fibres. Since the silica molecules in these fibres are much smaller than the wavelength of visible light (Yao, 2010), Rayleigh scattering occurs within these cables and causes light to be scattered in a random direction instead of travelling through the cable. This is detrimental to signal strength. Hence, as Rayleigh scattering is extremely dependant on a lightÃ¢â¬â¢s wavelength and short wavelengths of light scatter the most, optical fibres usually transmit signals in longer light wavelengths to minimise scattering. 5. Conclusion One of the most observable phenomena by the naked eye, the sky is often photographed at sunrise or sunset for its picturesque clouds. Besides just appreciating the beauty of these occurrences, I now understand the science behind them as well. Additionally, I also now know why the sky or clouds are red on certain nights even when there is no light from the Sun or the Moon. Besides the theoretical principles and atmospheric observations, scattering of light also has practical applications in real-life. In times before satellite imaging existed to forecast weather, people referred to colours in the night sky to determine if there would be good weather the next day. Today, knowledge of light scattering is also useful in deciding what wavelengths of light should be used when transmitting signals through optical fibres. In addition, understanding Rayleigh and Mie scattering also allows us to minimise to impact that bright skies might have on our natural body clocks. Thus, the study of light scattering not only allows us to better appreciate our atmosphere, but also apply these concepts in real-life. (1949 words; excluding citations) - End - 6. Bibliography Association of South East Asian Nations. (2014). Information on Fire and Haze. Retrieved 07 March, 2014, from ASEAN Haze Action Online: http://haze.asean.org/?page_id=249 Leong, J. (2006). Number of Colors Distinguishable by the Human Eye. (G. Elert, Editor) Retrieved 26 March, 2014, from The Physics Factbook: http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2006/JenniferLeong.shtml Nave, C. R. (2012). Blue Sky. Retrieved 17 March, 2014, from hyperphysics: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/atmos/blusky.html#c4 Seinfeld, J. H., Pandis , S. N. (2006). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, 2nd Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. Siegel, E. (08 September, 2009). Red sky at nightÃ¢â¬ ¦ but why? Retrieved 05 March, 2014, from scienceblogs.com: http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2009/09/08/red-sky-at-night-but-why/ Teitel, A. S. (23 August, 2012). Why Is the Night Sky Turning Red? Retrieved 28 February, 2014, from discovermagazine.com: http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/crux/2012/08/23/why-is-the-night-sky-turning-red/ University of Illinois. (2010). Scattering of Light. Retrieved 29 March, 2014, from WW2010: http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/opt/mch/sct.rxml Yao, C. (20 September, 2010). Optical Fiber Loss and Attenuation. Retrieved 17 March, 2014, from Fibre Optics For Sale Co.: http://www.fiberoptics4sale.com/wordpress/optical-fiber-loss-and-attenuation/ GEK1520/PC1322 | Understanding the UniversePage 1 of 13
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Islamic law and non-Muslims Some pro-Israeli opinion cite traditional interpretations of sharia (Islamic law) which requires, among other things, that Muslim territory encompass all land that was ever under Muslim control, as a source for the Arab-Israeli conflict. Since the territory of Israel, prior to being the British Mandate of Palestine, was once part of the Ottoman caliphate, some Islamic clerics believe it is unlawful for any portion of it to remain 'usurped' by non-Muslims. By contrast, pro-Arab opinion points at the pronounced religious tolerance of the caliphates, where Christians and Jews coexisted "harmoniously" with Muslims and were granted limited self-autonomy. Resentment of Israeli Jews, this argument concludes, only emerged as a result from and after the rise of the Zionist enterprise in Palestine. Pro-Israeli views, however, often dismiss this explanation with the argument that Muslim Arab hostility towards Israel is largely derived from the sharia dictation that Jews or Christians are not to be considered equal to Muslims. Pro-Arab commentator view this as running counter to the tradition of tolerance towards "People of the Book" in Islam. They also point towards the long tradition of Palestinian Christians in their resistance to Israel and its policies, including such noted figures as Edward Said and George Habash, and the various Palestinian secular movements such as the PLO itself. In turn pro-Israeli proponents refer to a declining Christian Palestinian population (along with those of most Arab Christians) as, at least in part, a product of Muslim hostility towards non-Muslims, in general. According to a report published in December 2001 by the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies think tank.The Christian Exodus from the Middle East (http://www.defenddemocr acy.org/usr_doc/Christian_Exodus.pdf), in December 1997 The Times noted: "Life in (PA ruled) Bethlehem has become insufferable for many members of the dwindling Christian minorities." The report also states that "Christians in the Palestinian territories have dropped from 15% of the Arab population in 1950 to just 2% today." Some Palestinian Christian are of the opinion that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has led to the diminishment of their population[ (http://christianactionforisrael.org/antiholo/hate_jews.html)][ (http://www.amconmag.com/2004_05_24/article.html)]. Ohers, like Abe Ata, a Palestinian Christian, are of the opinion that American Christians have "turned their backs" on them by supporting Israel [ (http://www.natcath.com/NCR_Online/archives/112202/112202r.htm)]. The Anglican bishop of Jerusalem, Riah Abu El-Assal, is recorded as being "intemperate in his attacks on Israel"[ (http://christianactionforisrael.org/ant iholo/hate_jews.html)]. Many Palestinian Christians have complained about Israel's treatment of them. One such complaint is that Israel does not give Palestinian Christians permission to visit holy places  (http://www.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Abstract This paper examines the works of Sigmund Freud and Emile Durkheim on religion, looking at how both theorists essentially viewed religion as serving an integral role in human culture. In particular, this essay considers how both theorist consider religious believers to be mistaken in their ontological beliefs, and the rational causes for this. Introduction While both Sigmund Freud and Emile Durkheim are concerned with the study of human behaviour as it relates to culture, each does so from within distinct traditions. In terms of religion, FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s approach belongs to the psychological tradition, while Durkheim puts forward a sociological approach. In the Freudian view, human behaviour is largely driven by inborn and intangible Ã¢â¬Å"drivesÃ¢â¬ , working in the unconscious. Such phenomena are not directly observable, that is, they are non-empirical; they must consequently be inferred, and as such are conjectural. DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s sociological method, on the other hand, utilises direct empirical observations of social phenomena (rites, rituals, customs, et cetera), looking to account for the impetus behind and purpose of group behaviour. Hence Freud is concerned with obscure, intangible internal phenomena, whereas Durkheim is concerned with overt and tangible external phenomena. Evidently, the theoretical positions in question to a degree divide between internal and external motivations. Different Routes to the Core of a Delusion Durkheim posits a direct connection between environmental variables, the way groups interact with such variables, and how this interaction is perceived by individual members of said group. There is a mode of cyclical reflexivity in this dynamic: this means people Ã¢â¬Å"living together in society generate rules which are felt by any individual member as acting on him from outside, as having a force which he feels as both uplifting and constrainingÃ¢â¬ (Scharf 1970, 151). This force, Durkheim argues, is an externalisation of conventions peculiar to the group; that are perceived as exogenous but which are in fact endogenous. This tendency to externalise, Durkheim suggests, derives from the natural human desire to ascribe meaning to experience, to seek a pattern in the natural order. Thus, as Kunin states, religion likewise Ã¢â¬Å"is an externalisation of society and its orderÃ¢â¬ and speaks to the Ã¢â¬Å"dialectic relationship between the individual and societyÃ¢â¬ (2003, 82). Religion, then, provides for an externalised object onto which collective emotion can be projected; this is ultimately reflexive because the externalisation at root represents the people themselves. As a result, to honour religious custom is indirectly to honour the group. This is why for Durkheim religious experience serves to strengthen group cohesion and bonding. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of religion is somewhat pejorative. Connolly observes that Freud noticed Ã¢â¬Å"the connection between abnormal psychological conditions and religionÃ¢â¬ (1991, 146): which observation he expanded upon in his study Ã¢â¬Å"Obsessive acts and Religious PracticesÃ¢â¬ (1907). As the paperÃ¢â¬â¢s title suggests, Freud drew a connection between psychological abnormality and religious practice, noting a resemblance between Ã¢â¬Å"what are called obsessive acts in neurotics and those religious observances by means of which the faithful give expression to their pietyÃ¢â¬ (17). In turn, Fre ud perceived religion, like neurosis, as symptomatic of deep-seated psychological issues. In the words of Gallucci, Ã¢â¬Å"Freud saw religion as a collective neurotic symptom, an obsessional neurosisÃ¢â¬ (2001, 76). This Ã¢â¬Å"neurosisÃ¢â¬ , according to psychoanalytic theory, comes about as a defence mechanism against feelings of helplessness which obtain in a dispassionate cosmos. Hence the need for a cosmic father figure, who, as a parent comforts the child, palliates the religious subject with conciliatory notions (about purpose, meaning, boundaries, rewards, and so on). This entire dynamic apparently stems from Oedipal anxieties, where Ã¢â¬Å"each person grows up with a sense of foreboding toward a father figure who is both feared and lovedÃ¢â¬ ; this, it follows, Ã¢â¬Å"becomes the basis for the cosmic father figure, who offers protection and salvation but in the meantime needs to be appeased by devotion and sacrificeÃ¢â¬ (Clarke 2002, 43). In FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, r eligion therefore constitutes a surrogate parent. On the surface, Freud and Durkheim proffer two seemingly quite different explanations for religion. Importantly, while these theories are not overtly complementary, nor are they mutually exclusive. Indeed, significant parallels may be drawn between each approach. For example, both both theorists argued that religion is an important factor in community cohesion (Scharf 1970, 155); both agree that Ã¢â¬Å"religion is central to any cultural analysisÃ¢â¬ (Ginsburg and Pardes 2006, 220); and, thus, both hold that Ã¢â¬Å"that the cognitive roots of religious belief are to be found in social experienceÃ¢â¬ (Spiro 1987, 202). These similarities are significant and, moreover, point to one common determinant: that the underlying basis of religious convictions are contrary to what believers suppose. For Durkheim, the real driving force behind religion is social cohesion; for Freud, the impetus is psychological assuagement. In either case, social unity and mental wellbeing obtain, only for slightly different conceptual reasons. From the above, one might argue that Freud and Durkheim share significant overarching perspectives on religion while holding markedly different structural viewpoints on how and why religion functions. Freud is concerned with psychological structures; Durkheim with sociological structures. Freud believes religion works to console believers from the ultimate anxiety of a meaningless cosmos. Durkheim believes religion provides for a canvas on which social phenomena can be externalised and then re-accommodated as an exogenous entity. Again, both modes of behaviour essentially work to the same purpose: instilling a sense of meaning in human life. At this stage, one might consider the ways in which Freudian theory could compensate for shortfalls in the work of Durkheim and vice versa. For instance, Durkheim offers little in the way of early psychological developmental insights, into the religious pr ocess; yet there is no reason that early anxiety (of an Oedipal nature) could not cohere with Durkheimian ideas. Indeed, such anxiety and the consequent potential for neurosis could suggest an even greater need for group cohesion: as a way of reifying the delusion through consensus, thus alleviating the anxiety. Again, this would chime with DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding that religion is Ã¢â¬Å"a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things [. . .] which unite in one single moral community called a ChurchÃ¢â¬ (cited in Gain 2010, 39). By the same token, FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s limitations could perhaps be overcome with reference to some of DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s insights. Scharf notes a Ã¢â¬Å"weakness of Freudian theoryÃ¢â¬ in that it Ã¢â¬Å"does little to explain [the] varietyÃ¢â¬ in articulations of paternity and fraternity within religious discourse, advising that, here, Ã¢â¬Å"DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s structural approach has more valueÃ¢â¬ (1970, 154). Accordingly we see that a synthesis of theoretical approaches may not only be possible but highly advantageous. Conclusion Freud and Durkheim take very different roads to arrive at more or less the same destination. For this reason, significant and consistent core elements may be identified between their works. These include the fundamental belief that religion serves an explicable, material, social purpose which is essentially external to theological concerns; that religious believers are at base mistaken in their beliefs (insomuch as these beliefs are connected to cosmic phenomena beyond the rationally explicable); that, it follows, religion is the irrational articulation of an ultimately rational cause (anxiety or clan behaviour); that religion can function as a surrogate or projection of humanity Ã¢â¬â reformed with divine auspices; and that, finally, religion is an integral element of human culture. What is fundamentally different in these two authors is their methodological priorities. Each man comes from a very distinct tradition. Put simply, Freud and Durkheim were engaged in different discipl ines; as a result, their pursuits were orientated differently The reason Freud and DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s works are compared at all is that the realms of the sociological and of the psychological possess mutual territory: the grounds of culture. Both theorists have their limitations. Durkheim can be accused of being over reductive and simplistic. Social structure may not be enough to account for every aspect of religion. Psychological, cognitive and other inborn factors may also have a large part to play. Freud, on the other hand, may place too much onus on the unconscious drives in dictating religious experience. After all, religion is so varied and complex, it might be argued, to defy any wholesale theory to explain it away. What, for example, do we make of religions in which there is no Ã¢â¬Å"father figureÃ¢â¬ proper; or religions which proclaim no deity at allClearly there are unanswered questions on both sides of the aisle. Perhaps a hybrid methodology that adopted a syncretic a pproach to the study of religion might help answer these questions. After all, it seems to be the case that both Freud and Durkheim arrived at crucial insights into the social and psychological determinants that drive religion. References Clarke, P. J. (2002) Explaining Philosophy and Ethics. Cheltenham: Nelson Thomas. Connolly, P. (1991) Ã¢â¬Å"Psychological ApproachesÃ¢â¬ . In: Connolly, P. ed. Approaches to the Study of Religion. New York: Continuum, pp. 135-193. Durkheim, E. (1912). The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. (J. Swain, Trans.) New York: The Free Press. Freud, S. (1907) Ã¢â¬Å"Obsessive Acts and Religious PracticesÃ¢â¬ . In: J Strachey (ed. and trans.) Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth Press. Gain, M., 2010. On DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s Rules of Sociological Method (Routledge Revivals). New York: Routledge. Gallucci, G. M., 2001. Plato and Freud: Statesmen of the Soul. Philadelphia: Xlibris. Ginsburg, R. & Pardes, L., 2006. New Perspectives on FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Moses and Monotheism. Tubingen: Niemeyer. Kunin, S. D., 2003. Religion: The Modern Theories. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Scharf, B. R., 1970. Ã¢â¬Å"Durkheimian and Freudian Theories of Religion: The Case of JudaismÃ¢â¬ , The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 21. 2 (June), pp. 151-163. Spiro, M. E., 1987. Culture and Human Nature. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
CLDDV 101 Anecdotal Observation Assignments Ã¢â¬Å"Education of the mind without education of the heart is not education at all. Ã¢â¬ Aristotle Goal Ã¢â¬â Observing Children The goal of observation is to enhance your understanding of the major concepts and milestones of development through observation of real children rather than just reading or hearing about how children grow and develop. Child development refers to the kinds of changes that occur from conception through late adolescence.Physical (fine and gross/large motor), cognitive, emotional, social, self-help, and aesthetic development will be explored through these observations, providing a brief account of development as it occurs. In addition, using well-written anecdotal records teachers are better able to track a childÃ¢â¬â¢s interests, how a child is getting along, learning, and progressing in a program, become the basis for planning developmentally appropriate curriculum to help the child build skills, and have documentation to support classroom assessments.Observations, recorded over time, and representative of all domains of development can present a comprehensive picture of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development . Child Development/Developmental Domains: Child development focuses on the processes of change and stability in children from conception through late adolescence. Developmental scientists study both quantitative change and qualitative change in children. Quantitative change is a change in number or amount, such as in height, weight, size of vocabulary, or frequency of communication and is continuous throughout childhood.Qualitative change is a change in kind, structure, or organization and is discontinuous. It is marked by the emergence of new phenomena that cannot be anticipated easily on the basis of earlier functioning. One example is the change from a nonverbal child to one who understands words and can use them to communicate. The processes of change and stability that developmental scientists study occur in domains. For purposes of study, developmental scientists separate the domains into different aspects of the self including physical (small and large muscles), cognitive, emotional, and personalsocial.All domains are interrelated. Physical Development: growth of the body and brain, the development of sensory capacities and motor skills including health. Cognitive Development: change and stability in mental abilities, such as learning, memory, language, thinking, moral reasoning, and creativity. Emotional Development: change and stability in the development of a full range of emotional responses to events and interactions from sad to happy to angry, and learning to deal with them appropriately. Social Development: growth in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to interact and communicate with others in meaningful ways. 01 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 1 PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s Concrete Pre-operational Stage (2-7 years of age) The preschool-aged children that you will be observing have entered into PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s preoperational stage of cognitive development. The key feature of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking in this stage is symbolic representation. The child is now able to use a symbol, an object, or a word to stand for something else. The use of symbols can be clearly seen in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s use of language; for example, the child can now represent objects in the environment with the appropriate word and can refer to past and future events.The use of symbols is also apparent in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s drawings, imitation, mental imagery, and symbolic play. For example, a preoperational child might be observed feeding her doll imaginary cereal or drawing a picture of the balloons at her last birthday party. Thinking in terms of symbols does permit more flexibility and planning in their problem solving. Despite these increases in cognitive skills, the thought processes of preoperational children result in characteristic differences in reasoning. Because they do no t use logical operations, their reasoning often seems flawed to adults.One of the most easily observed differences in how preoperational children reason at this age is the tendency to view the world from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own perspective only, a phenomenon that Piaget termed egocentrism. Because of egocentric thinking, preoperational children may Ã¢â¬Å"hideÃ¢â¬ by covering their eyes or only parts of their bodies, believing that if they canÃ¢â¬â¢t see the seeker than they, themselves, canÃ¢â¬â¢t be seen. Other preoperational reasoning errors result from thinking that is intuitive, rather than logical.For example, preschool children are incapable of conservation Ã¢â¬â they do not understand that certain properties of objects, such as volume or mass, do not change just because the superficial appearance of the object changes. Preoperational children are not only tied to their perceptions, they are also unable to de-center their thinking, or think about more than one aspect of a problem at a time. Their thinking shows what Piaget called irreversibility Ã¢â¬â they are unable to reverse or mentally undo an action. During this stage of development, children acquire new words at an astronomical rate.These rapid gains in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s vocabulary are accompanied by mastery of more complex grammatical structures such as forming past tenses and plurals. As children acquire the grammatical rules of their language, a type of error called overregularization may occur in which children overuse the basic rules of language. For example, a 2 ? or 3-year-old may say, Ã¢â¬Å"I bringed my puppy,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"My feets are cold. Ã¢â¬ Children also become more likely to use correct syntax Ã¢â¬â that is, they become more aware of how words should be ordered to convey a particular meaning. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge about gender and gender-role expectations develops very early.Preschoolers have a strong sense of gender identity, a sense of being male or female. Between the ages of 4 and 6, children develop gender constancy; the realization that gender stays the same regardless of how one looks or behaves. At this point, they may adopt very rigid standards for what they believe is appropriate male and female dress and behavior. 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 2 Preschool children are more likely to play with sex-appropriate toys; that is, boys are more likely to play with stereotypical Ã¢â¬Å"boy toysÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â such as trucks; and girls are more likely to play with stereotypical Ã¢â¬Å"girl toysÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â such as dolls and kitchen sets.Over the preschool years, gender segregation also increases, as children are more likely to play with same-sex peers rather than opposite-sex peers. Preoperational childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s social interactions become increasingly reciprocal and coordinated, which is reflected in their play. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s play can be divided into four categories, ranging from least to most socially complex Ã¢â¬â nonsocial activity (onlooker and solitary), parallel play, associative play, and cooperative play. Around the age of 4 of 5 there is a developmental shift in the type of play in which children engage.Four and five year olds begin to demonstrate constructive play, drawing pictures or working on puzzles in pairs or groups, purposefully creating and constructing something together. Play also becomes more complex as children begin to experiment with both everyday and imaginary roles through pretend or dramatic play. This type of play involves advances in cognition, perspective taking, and communication skills. While there are individual differences in development, most children develop typically.Some children, however, may show significant maturational delays or differences Ã¢â¬â these children are often identified with developmental disabilities. While many developmental disabilities are identified based on delays or differences from what we know of typical development, and differe nt labels are used to describe the patterns of difference. It is important to remember, however, that a child with a disability is first and foremost a child, and that all children are typical in many ways. So instead of saying Ã¢â¬Ëdisabled childÃ¢â¬â¢, it is more appropriate and respectful to state Ã¢â¬Ëa child with a disability. Writing Skills Ã¢â¬ ¢ If you struggle with your writing skills, there are several resources including enrolling in CLDDV-48, securing a mentor through the Mentor Program (see instructor for referral), utilizing MJCÃ¢â¬â¢s writing lab or tutoring center, or working with a skilled highschool or college student or peers to review your assignments before they are due. The following pointers will help your success in writing effective and informative observational reports. o Use the spell and grammar check functions in your computerÃ¢â¬â¢s writing program. Carefully review versions of commonly used words such as theyÃ¢â¬â¢re (they are), their (the ir shoes), and there (There are the missing shoes. ) o Carefully review words such as then and than ? Then connotes the relationship between actions, such as, Ã¢â¬Å"We will learn about anecdotal records and then running records. Ã¢â¬ ? Than connotes a comparative measurement, such as, Ã¢â¬Å"Amanda is taller than Dylan. Ã¢â¬ o The over use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"thenÃ¢â¬ is another area to consider. Try to limit your use of it in your observational reports as it is often used excessively. o Learn the correct format for quotations.Anytime you are reporting what the child said, you must use the standard quotation format. Example: Kevin could not reach the ball. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"Teacher will you get the ball for me? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 3 o When children are using tricycles, the word that describes how their feet work is pedal. Examples: He pedaled. She pedaled. He was pedaling. o Write your anecdotal observational reports in past tense. This means y our verbs will often end in Ã¢â¬Å"edÃ¢â¬ . Examples: Julia played with the trains. Kevin walked from the blocks to the carpet area. Keifer asked the teacher, Ã¢â¬Å"May I have my turn now? How to record your observation: Directions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Observations must occur in a licensed preschool center-based program. Licensed childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s centers are programs that operate either preschool and/or full-day childcare services for children between 30 months and 5 years of age. They are licensed by the State of California, Department of Social Services, Community Care Licensing and receive site visits and inspections on a regular basis. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The following are NOT acceptable as observation sites: family child care homes, faith based nursery programs, family events, park visits, or play dates.Past experience has demonstrated that these observations are not effective for the purpose of this course. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Select a program that is willing to work cooperatively with you and provide the nec essary information such as the childÃ¢â¬â¢s birth date. It is appropriate to give a fictitious name to the child to keep the childÃ¢â¬â¢s name anonymous. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Find a position where you can observe without interfering or interacting with the activities of the classroom. Come prepared with your paper and writing implements so that you do not interrupt the staff. A clipboard or supportive binder is appropriate, so that you can write Ã¢â¬Å"on your lap. Keep a low profile. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Computer Generated Work/Word Processed Work/Paper Headings: All papers must be word processed (typewritten), with no less than a 12 font, space and a half. In addition, each paper submitted is required to be labeled with the information below in the top left hand corner of the first page. Please number each page and staple all pages together. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Papers will be graded as follows: o Required Information Ã¢â¬â 10% o Conforms to format provided Ã¢â¬â 10% o Written content, answers assignment Ã¢â ¬â 50% o Writing (grammar, spelling, syntax, structure, etc. Ã¢â¬â 30% Ã¢â¬ ¢ Developmental Domains/required to focus on for each observation o Anecdote #1-Physical Development/Large Motor Skills (i. e. pedaling a tricycle, hopping, skipping, swinging) or Physical Development/Small Motor Skills (i. e. cutting, drawing, painting, beading) o Anecdote #2- Cognitive Development (i. e. pre-math, science, memory, cause/effect, following directions) o Anecdote #3-Emotional Development (i. e . typically there will be some type of social interaction where you record the childÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional response to the interaction) 01 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 4 o Anecdote #4-Social Development (i. e. a social interaction between the child you select and one other child; you may NOT record an observation between a child and an adult. ) Please record the conversation between the two children. This anecdote may be slightly longer than your first three anecdotal observations. Anecdote: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Write verbs in past tense. Select ONE preschool-aged child who is 3, 4, or 5 years of age. The child you select is the focus in your anecdote. Follow the child as s/he moves, if necessary.Quickly record in sequence all activity and try to quote, word for word, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s speech. It is not necessary to quote a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s comments; just summarize teacher comments. Your very first sentence in the anecdote needs to identify that the child who is the primary focus. Observe and document in writing a developmentally significant event; keep written documentation for later use when typing so that you are not pulling from memory. A developmentally significant event is representative of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s particular age and stage of development.Typically, a significant event in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s day is something that you would share with the parent/caregiver at the end of the day while discussing the childÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and development. Be specific and date each ane cdote. Times Ã¢â¬â note beginning time of significant moment. The anecdote is one short story, which is organized around a beginning, middle and end of a story. Some anecdotes may be 15 minutes long (i. e. several sentences) especially when documenting social interactions and conversations but most will be 2-3 minutes long (i. . 5-7 sentences. ) Avoid subjective statements where you give your opinion or make inferences about things like, o Goodness or badness (instead of saying that the childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior was bad, state that when the other child grabbed the puzzle, the child reached over and hit) o Intentions (instead of saying that the child was waiting for the teacher to notice him, state without saying a word, the child was quietly standing next to his teacher) o Feelings/Emotions (instead of saying child is mad, state child is stomping feet, etc. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Skill Building: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Verbs will be written in a mixture of tenses as you share what child did in the past in order to explain childÃ¢â¬â¢s current skill base Include two specific skills that the child is learning as from the documented significant event. Write two complete sentences and identify the domain area (i. e. aesthetic development; cognitive development, emotional development; physical development/fine motor; physical development/ large motor; elf-help skills; social development. ) 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 5 Subjective Summary: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Verbs will be written in a mixture of tenses as you share what child did in the past in order to explain childÃ¢â¬â¢s current skill base You, the observer, share your professional opinion about what you observed during the developmentally significant moment. When you share your opinion, follow it with a statement of something observed to support your statement.Stay away from words such a good and great and also stay away from labeling and diagnosing behavior such as att ention-deficit or autism. ) Suggestion to help the child continue to progress (When making the suggestion, take a look at the childÃ¢â¬â¢s current skill base and then make a suggestion to scaffold to a more complex activity): Ã¢â¬ ¢ You, the observer, share your professional recommendation for future curriculum activities. Suggest similar activities that will help the child increase proficiency in the area that s/he is building skills.If the child appears to be at the mastery level of his/her developmental stage of development, then suggest a more complex activity that you believe is still developmentally appropriate for that child. 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 6 Sample Anecdotal Assignment (Set up your assignment using this same format; the sample format in the syllabus is not correct. You are welcome to copy and paste this sample into your own word document and then replace the existing information with your information. CLDDV 101 Last name, first name: Smith, Laurie Tit le of Assignment: Anecdotal Observation #1 Due Date: Wednesday, September 15, 2010 Date Turned In: Wednesday, September 15, 2010 (on time) or Wednesday, September 22, 2010 (late) (Note: if you are turning in the assignment on time, then you will enter the same date for Ã¢â¬Å"Due DateÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Date Turned In. Ã¢â¬ If you are turning it in 7 days late, then you will enter two different dates. Name of preschool: Address of preschool: Phone number of preschool: Name of head teacher: Date of visit: Time of significant event: Number of teachers present: Number of children present: Name of child (it is okay to give the child a fictitious name): Angelica Birth date of child: January, 2006 Age of child including years and months: 4 years and 8 months Focused on the following developmental domain: Physical Development/Large Motor Objective Anecdote (do NOT use subjective words such as happy, sad, nervous, excited): While outside during free choice, Angelica walked over to Daisy a nd asked, Ã¢â¬Å"Do you want to go swing? Daisy responded with a smile on her face, and then they ran to the swings. With the help of a teacher giving Angelica some starter pushes, she smiled and began to pump. She looked at Daisy and said, Ã¢â¬Å"Look. IÃ¢â¬â¢m up so high! Ã¢â¬ Daisy, who was pumping on the swing next to her, responded by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Me too. Ã¢â¬ Angelica continued to swing next to Daisy for a few more minutes before moving to another activity. Skill Building (select from chart below or create your own): In terms of AngelicaÃ¢â¬â¢s physical development/large motor skills, she is developing balance and strengthening the large muscles in her arms and legs as she pumps on the swing.A second skill that Angelica is building is in the area of social development. The emergence of prosocial behavior is observed as she respectfully invites the other child to swing and then continues to interact with her in a positive manner during this interaction. Subjective S ummary (in this area you can use your opinion): After observing Angelica swing, it is believed that she has well-developed physical coordination in the area of her large motor skills as she is able to sustain pumping on the 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 7 swing with just a little help from the teacher getting her started.In addition, Angelica appears to play well with other children as noted when she not only respectfully invited another child to swing, but also continued to initiate a conversation with the other child while swinging. Suggestion to help the child continue to progress (When making the suggestion, take a look at the childÃ¢â¬â¢s current skill base and then make a suggestion to scaffold to a more complex activity): In the area of curriculum development, it is suggested that Angelica continue to be provided with opportunities to engage in large motor activities such as swinging, running, jumping, climbing, and pedaling on a tricycle.Since, she already knows how to pump while on the swing, it is suggested that the teachers show her how to start the swing moving back and forth without the help of a teacher. This is a difficult skill to learn, so it is important to allow Angelica the choice to start on her own and/or get a starter push from a teacher as she works on skill building in this area. (If she was not able to pump at four years and eight months, you might say: She is encouraged to continue to practice swinging with the support of a teacher who can break down the steps as she teaches her how to pump.If she was only three years old, you might say: She is encouraged to continue to have positive experiences on the swing with the help of a teacher putting her on the swing and pushing her. As she grows older, a teacher can break down the steps as she teaches her how to pump. ) 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 8 Use this chart to help you locate skills that the child is developing. The Creative Curriculum Goals and Objectives at a Glance SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Sense of Self Learning and Problem Solving -Shows ability to adjust to new situations. Observes objects and events with curiosity. -Demonstrate appropriate trust in adults. -Approaches problems flexibly -Recognizes own feelings and manages -Shows persistence in approaching tasks. them appropriately. -Explores cause and effect. -Stands up for rights. -Applies knowledge or experience to a new context. Responsibility for Self and Others -Demonstrates self-direction and independence. -Takes responsibility for own well being. -Respects and cares for classroom environment and materials. -Follows classroom routines. -Follows classroom rules. Prosocial Behavior -Plays well with other children. Recognizes the feelings of others and responds appropriately. -Shares and respects the rights of others. -Uses thinking skills to resolve conflicts. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: Gross Motor -Demonstrates basic locomotor skills (i. e. running, jumping, hop ping, galloping. ) -Shows balance while moving. -Climbs up and down. -Pedals and steers a tricycle (or other wheeled vehicle. ) -Demonstrates throwing, kicking, and catching skills. Fine Motor -Controls small muscles in hands. -Coordinates eye-hand movement. -Uses tools for writing and drawing. Logical Thinking -Classifies objects. Compares/measures. -Arranges objects in a series (i. e. sequence/set. ) -Recognizes patterns and can repeat them. -Shows awareness of time concepts and sequence. -Uses one-to-one correspondence. -Uses numbers and counting. Representation and Symbolic Thinking -Takes on pretend roles and situations. -Makes believe with others. -Makes and interprets representations (i. e. be a symbol for. ) LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: Listening and Speaking -Hears and discriminates the sounds of language. -Expresses self using words and expanded sentences. -Understands and follows oral directions. Answers questions. -Asks questions. -Actively participates in conversations. Readin g and Writing -Enjoys and values reading. -Demonstrates understanding of print concepts. -Demonstrates knowledge of alphabet. -Uses emerging reading skills to make meaning from print. -Comprehends and interprets meaning from books and other texts. -Understands the purpose of writing. -Writes letters and words. 2001 Teaching Strategies, Inc. Washington, DC. Permission is granted to duplicate in programs implementing The Creative Curriculum. 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 9Use the following ideas to help you locate more skills that the child is developing. The developmental domain area (i. e. physical development, cognitive development, etc. ) is not identified; therefore, you will need to identify the domain area when selecting skills from below. What Children Learn from Play WHEN I EASEL PAINT I LEARN: -to develop imagination and creativity. -hand-eye coordination. -to distinguish and purposely create shapes. -to express feelings and ideas. -that ideas have value. -relationship s of space and size. -concepts of symmetry, balance, and design.WHEN I CUT WITH SCISSORS I LEARN: -to control the small muscles in my hand. -concepts of shape, size, color, and location. -to exercise imagination and creativity. WHEN I SCRIBBLE AND DRAW I LEARN: -to hold a pencil or other drawing implement and to control the pressure. -hand-eye coordination. -to exercise imagination and creativity. -that ideas have value. -Concepts of shape, size, color, and location. WHEN I FINGER PAINT I LEARN: -to exercise imagination and creativity. -about how colors mix to make new colors (science. ) -concepts and shape, size, color, and location. hand-eye coordination. -an acceptable way to make a mess, and have fun sharing ideas with others who are near. WHEN I PASTE, GLUE, AND COLLAGE I LEARN: -to exercise imagination and creativity. -concepts of shape, size, color and location, and design, relevant to reading. -about different textures. -how to create patterns and designs, a math skill. WHEN I PLAY WITH PLAY DOUGH OR CLAY I LEARN: -to see the shape against the background of the table, a reading skill. -concepts of shapes, sizes, length, and height. -to see negative space when cookie cutter shapes are taken away. to express feelings, especially negative feelings with squeezing and pounding. -to exercise imagination and creativity. -that the amount of a substance remains the same even when the shape changes. WHEN I PLAY WITH SAND I LEARN: Ã¢â¬âto exercise my imagination. Ã¢â¬âconcepts of size, shape, and volume; empty and full. Ã¢â¬âhow to use tools. Ã¢â¬âto solve problems. Ã¢â¬âconcepts of warm and cool, wet, damp, and dry, heavy and light. Ã¢â¬âhow to play socially with others. 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 10 Ã¢â¬âto create own patterns and symbols, reading and writing skills. Ã¢â¬âto observe changes, a science skill.EXAMINING OBJECTS AT A NATURE TABLE HELPS ME LEARN: -new vocabulary. -concepts of texture, color, weight, and size. -to gro up objects into categories. -to observe likenesses and differences. -to appreciate nature and develop a sense of wonder. WHEN I SORT THINGS I LEARN: -to notice details, likenesses, differences and to form categories, essential reading and math skills. -concepts of color, size, and shape. -numeral concepts of more and less. -logical reasoning. WHEN I STRING BEADS I LEARN: -hand-eye coordination. -concepts of color, shape, and location. number concepts like more, less, longer, and shorter. -to create and reproduce patterns. -pride in accomplishment. WHEN I PLAY WITH PEGBOARDS I LEARN: -one-to-one correspondence, one peg for one hole, a pre-math skill. -to make and repeat patterns, a pre-math skill. -concepts of addition as I add one peg at a time. -colors. -symmetry, shapes, order, and design. -hand-eye coordination. WHEN I DO COOKING PROJECTS I LEARN: -about nutrition, tastes, and food groups. -how heat and cold change things. -concepts of volume and measure. -vocabulary. -whole-part relationships, math concepts. awareness of my own and other cultures. WHEN I PLAY WITH BLOCKS, CARS, AND TRUCKS I LEARN: -concepts of shape, size, length and location, all reading and math skills. -to create and repeat patterns, a math skill. -to exercise imagination. -to express ideas. -to cooperate with others. -to solve problems. -about the properties of wood. -to see oneself from a different perspective, that of a giant. WHEN I DO THINGS FOR MYSELF (SELF-HELP SKILLS), I LEARN: -to competently care for own needs. -to control the small muscles in hands when buttoning and zipping. -to problem solve. to see oneself from a different perspective, that of a capable person. -self-confidence, as new skills are mastered. -I can teach others to help themselves. -awareness of the importance of hygiene when I wash my hands before eating or after toileting. WHEN I PLAY ON RIDING TOYS I LEARN: -strength, balance, and large muscle coordination. -to use energy in a constructive way. -concepts o f speed, direction, and location. -to use imagination as I pretend to be different characters and to make different Ã¢â¬Å"roadÃ¢â¬ noises. 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 11 -to negotiate and take turns. to solve problems -self-confidence, as I master new skills. WHEN I PLAY ON CLIMBING EQUIPMENT I LEARN: -physical strength, coordination, and balance. -to use imagination. -to cooperate with others when involved in group play. -to solve problems. -self-confidence as I develop new skills. WHEN I PARTICIPATE IN CIRCLE TIME ACTIVITIES I LEARN: -to listen, sit still, and understand spoken words. -that ideas added to the discussion have value. -to wait when others are talking. -new vocabulary words. -to remember the words of songs and poems I have learned. -the names of others in the group. to cooperate and be considerate of the needs of others. -to help plan what we will do and what we will need to do it. WHEN I LOOK AT BOOKS AND LISTEN TO STORIES I LEARN: -that learning to read is important and enjoyable. -that letters on a page represent words. -to express own thoughts, feelings and ideas better. -to exercise imagination. -to interpret pictures to represent words and ideas. -to listen well to spoken language. -to make up own stories. -to handle books with care. -to recognize certain words when I see them in print. -to use more complex language patterns in my own speech. to follow the development of thoughts and ideas in the plot of a story. Reading to children frequently is one of the surest ways to ensure that they themselves will become eager and capable readers. WHEN I SING SONGS I LEARN: -principles of music and rhythm -vocabulary. -memory skills and sequencing. -to be conscious of others. -various concepts emphasized in songs. -Ã¢â¬Å"auditory discriminationÃ¢â¬ recognizing differences in sounds, necessary for learning to read. -awareness and identification with my culture and other cultures. WHEN I PLAY RHYTHM INSTRUMENTS I LEARN: -to be consciou s of rhythm in music. concepts of fast, slow, loud, and soft. -to express oneself in new and different ways. -listening skills. -Ã¢â¬Å"auditory discriminationÃ¢â¬ recognizing differences in sounds, necessary for learning to read. -to interpret and understand signals and cues. WHEN I PLAY LETTER GAMES I LEARN: -to recognize and name upper and lower case letters. -to associate letters with the sounds they represent. -to recognize own name and other words. WHEN I DANCE I LEARN: -balance and coordination. -to be conscious of the moods and rhythms of the music. -to express myself physically. 101 anecdotal assignment 9/29/2010 12 WHEN I PLAY WITH PUPPETS I LEARN: -to express ideas with words. -to take on the role of someone else. -to use voice tones as well as words. -to use imagination. WHEN I PLAY IN THE DRESS-UP AREA I LEARN: -to be flexible in my thinking and to make decisions. -to express oneself with my words. -to try on different adult roles. -to solve social problems through n egotiation with friends. -to sort and organize play things. -to improvise and use things in a symbolic way to represent something else, abstract thinking. -to exercise my imagination and creativity.WHEN I SAY GOOD-BYE TO MY FAMILY WHEN I ARRIVE TO SCHOOL I LEARN: -that the loving relationships that I have created with my family provide me with the confidence and the ability to create caring relationships at school with my teachers and my friends. -how to say goodbye. -to express how I feel; and I learn that my feelings will be accepted. -that my family will consistently return each day to take me home. -that I am a capable person. 2001 Teaching Strategies, Inc. Washington, DC. Permission is granted to duplicate in programs implementing The Creative Curriculum. 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 13