Friday, November 29, 2019

Nuclear Power Plant

The fundamentals of the disaster While describing recent events which took place in Japan, I would like to tell a few words about the nuclear basics. First of all, I have to point out that the situation with nuclear power plant was under control. In other words, there were no defects of the equipment; so, the risk to the public was minimal.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Nuclear Power Plant specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is a need to clarify that atomic fission was used as a heat source; no fossil fuel was used. When speaking about atomic fission, one is to understand that I am talking about uranium. Of course, one can suppose that the risk was really great as everybody is familiar with the situation in Chernobyl. However, in this case the nuclear chain reaction had to be uncontrolled. Such situation with nuclear power plant in Japan was impossible. Another major risk was associated with the process of o verheating. Taking into account the risks, I have to state that the plant was protected from regrettable consequences. The cladding, the reactor vessel, the containment building, and a dry-wall building were the barriers to protect the nuclear power plant. It is also necessary to admit that Fukushima used the reactors BWRs. Of course, engineers had a plan to prevent the consequences of the earthquake. Keith Yost (2011) says that, â€Å"During regular operation, this chimney would be filled with a liquid/steam bubble mixture from the boiling water — in an emergency, this volume can be packed with surplus coolant, effectively raising the thermal capacitance of the reactor vessel† (para. 8). So, one may ask what happened. At Friday, when the earthquake took place, â€Å"the reactor automatically inserted its control rods into the core and ceased the fission of the nuclear fuel. Reactor power was at 6.5 percent, and full cooling was in effect† (Yost, 2011, para. 9). Unfortunately, the on-site generators were wrecked by the earthquake. These destroyed generators couldn’t activate the coolant pumps. Further consequences are well-known. The effects of radiation leak When earthquake in Japan took place, some articles concerning radiation leak at the nuclear power plant appeared. They said that radiation levels were increasing; however, authorities stated that there was no danger. Another interesting position, I would like to disclose is the similarities between the Chernobyl disaster and the disaster in Japan. Generally, I would like to point out that there were no similarities between two situations, as the disaster of 1986 was a man-made one; while the situation with nuclear power plant belonged to natural disasters.Advertising Looking for essay on other technology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While speaking about the effects of radiation on human beings, I have to state that it destroys living tissues. Radiation destroys the gastrointestinal system, the blood system, the immune system, etc. Moreover, it can cause cancer and genetic mutations. Jamie Epstein (2011) is of the opinion that, â€Å"radiation can cause many harsh consequences to any form of life—whether it be human, plants or animals† (para. 2). Radioactive materials have different span of life. For instance, â€Å"Strontium-90 is only radioactive for 53 days, Uranium-235 in the environment will remain radioactive for over 700 million years, Uranium-238 will remain radioactive for 4.5 billion years, and Rubidium remains radioactive for 47 million years† (Epstein, 2011, para. 6). When speaking about the global meaning of the disaster, Stephen Brozac and Henry Bassman (2011) state that, The worldwide implications of the event are becoming apparent: though a major leak in a maintenance pit of the plant has been plugged, there is still a great likelihood that significant amounts of radioactive water will continue to be released into the Pacific Ocean; the worldwide Just-In-Time manufacturingAdvertising We will write a custom essay sample on Nuclear Power Plant specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More cycle has been interrupted; and increased levels of radiation have been detected on the U.S. East Coast (para. 2). The importance of safety While speaking about nuclear power plant construction several aspects must be taken into account. So, it is necessary to consider the construction cost of building, the operating cost, the cost of waste disposal, and the cost of decommissioning. However, the most important point, which must be taken into consideration, is safety of nuclear power plants. The major safety components include control of radioactivity, maintenance of core cooling, and maintenance of barriers. The last component is extremely important to prevent the spreading of radiation. According to t, radiation doses at nuclear power plant must be thoroughly controlled. â€Å"Monitoring of individual doses and of the work environment, limit on the time a worker spends in areas with significant radiation levels, physical shielding, and the handling of equipment via remote in the core of the reactor† (, 2012, para. 9) are recognized to be the most important procedures, which prevent radiation doses rising. Of course, it is necessary to regulate the neutron flux. To reduce the level of the radioactivity, it is necessary to reduce the neutron flux. If there is no opportunity to use water to cool the system, sodium or sodium salts can replace water. Thus, the chemical elements will be used as a coolant. Finally, it is better to build nuclear power plants away from towns, cities or villages.Advertising Looking for essay on other technology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Brozac, S. Bassman, H. (2011). Fukushima: A Nuclear Threat to Japan, the U.S.  and the World. Web. Epstein, J. (2011). Devastating Effects to Environment due to Japan’s Radiation  Leaks. Web. (2012). Safety Mechanisms of a Nuclear Power Reactor. Web. Yost, K. (2011). Opinion: What Happened at the Fukushima Reactor? Web. This essay on Nuclear Power Plant was written and submitted by user Slayback to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Higher Education Essay Example

Higher Education Essay Example Higher Education Essay Higher Education Essay All education,primary,secondary and further education ,should be free to all people and paid for by the government. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? The education system varies from country to country. I tend to believe that the government should pay for the elementary education. In another word, the primary and secondary education should be free. But whether we should pay for the further education or not should be thought over. The reason for the government to burden the cost of basic education is that all of the civilization should be based on people [Individuals ]with basic knowledge of the world. This kind of knowledge, such as the ability of reading or writing which can be used in daily life, should be acquired at schools. Without such knowledge, it may be hard for people[individuals] to earn a living. So I think [Therefore, ]the government should encourage people [The youth]to attend schools to get [for]basic education. And the best way to do this is to provide free education at primary and secondary levels. However, it is another story about the further education[further education, however, is another story]. Colleges and universities should hire professors or better teachers who can offer advanced knowledge. Teachers who are available when students need higher level knowledge. And this can [Which may result in]result in higher costs. It will be difficult for the government to pay for all of the money and it is reasonable to ask the students to share a part of the cost. ? For those students whose family can afford the fees, the government should not pay the money for them. On the other hand, for those poorer students, the government should give them some financial help, for example in form of scholarship. Finally, I conclude that the government should pay for the primary and secondary education. For those who want to receive higher education, it is reasonable to charge them some money if they ca n afford it.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Great Captains Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Great Captains - Essay Example A number of individuals from many walks of life find it quite fascinating to study war strategy over the past several thousand years and how the same strategies have been employed, despite the fact that warfare has changed dramatically overtime. Being that warfare has changed over the past one hundred fifty years, the study of captains, such as Napoleon, Ulysses Grant, and Frederick the Great are still valid for a modern military professional, as it is these three individuals who have contributed largely in shaping our civilization and making it what it is today. One reason that the study of captains, such as Napoleon, Ulysses Grant, and Frederick the Great are still valid for a modern military professional is that a military professional can learn a great deal from these individuals. For instance, from the study of these great individuals, a modern military professional can learn to be an effective leader. The modern military can study the art of war from all three of these great captains and possibly employ some of these strategies in today's modern war fair. Some may challenge that learning the strategies of these captains is useless for a modern military professional, since war fair has changed so much since these men were alive. Those supporting this argument state that the weapons during the time of these captains were not as sophisticated as they are today, and wars are fought on a much larger scale than in times past. These captains did not deal with the challenges that we do now. Though these arguments are true and valid, the reason s for engaging in war are the same as they were since the beginning of humankind, and because of this, the study of such captains is relevant, as such study helps the future leader in deciding what he should and should not do to see to it that his outcomes are successful. If these three captains have employed a particular strategy that brought them a plethora of success, then there is no problem at all making use of that same strategy today. In regards to this, Paret and Clausewitz state that the purpose of war has always stayed the same, even though we now use more sophisticated weapons. Not to mention, the tactic to attack the enemy with the utmost force, to concentrate on what allows the enemy to resist and do away with it so the enemy can resist no longer and the desire to annihilate the enemy has been the same. Furthermore, the definition of war has also stayed the same, as war is merely a way for us to force the enemy to do our will and see to it that it is carried out (Chapte r One, Book One). Another reason that the study of these great captains is valid for a modern military professional is that a great deal can be learned from their use of intelligence. On the subject of intelligence as it pertains to war, Paret and Clausewitz state that those who are savages normally fight solely motivated by passion. There is no real intelligence on their part, as they are going to do whatever it takes to destroy their enemy. On the other hand, civilized peoples actually take the time out to sit and strategize how they will attack their enemy, defeat them, and successfully conquer them, if conquering is part of the reason that the war is being fought (Chapter One, Book One). These three great captains, no doubt, took the time to intelligently strategize how they would advance upon their enemies. Surely, they did feel some passion of hatred for their enemy, hence the reason they would attack them in the first place, as one would not attack someone they

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Experimenter Effects Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Experimenter Effects - Research Paper Example To improve experimenter effects for this article implies the reduction of the experimenter’s personal traits, behaviour, and expectancies in the ability of using Magnet Hospital program in reducing RN shortages. To prove that this program can effectively reduce nursing shortage, the experiment would employ the use of double-blind research. In this research, several hospitals are chosen with an acute care and step-down units. Some of the RNs in the acute care or the step-down units under the supervision of the advanced practice nurse. In My opinion, this approach would reduce experimenter effects, since error is reduce from the selection of a number of hospitals. Secondly, the experiment is carried out on either the acute care or step-down unit nurses in any of the hospitals. Thirdly, the margin of biasness, assumptions, perceptions and beliefs in conclusions, would b reduced by having a number of the RN nurses under the advanced practice nurse, who may or may not have a major leadership role in decision making, policy making, or design development. This method would work since the experimenter is not aware of the subjects under the experiment, due to the variance in

Monday, November 18, 2019

Evaluate Bribery in the context of International Strategic Marketing Essay - 1

Evaluate Bribery in the context of International Strategic Marketing - Essay Example in -- in other words, to "do as the Romans do." When a corporate official is faced with real situations abroad, this advice can give rise to conflicts and ambiguity, when actual situations require responses which are incompatible with the ethical norms in the home country. Payment of a tip to a government official or employee in the home country intended to facilitate licensing can be considered bribery, and therefore subject to legal consequences, at home; however, in a foreign country it may be a standard operating procedure that can facilitate and expedite action. The cost of refusing to comform to local practice can be result in significant losses which are disproportionate in relation to the small amount of "bribe" money. The international marketer can face a difficult dilemma when he has to respond to situations where there is no local law, where local practices forgive a certain behavior, or the companywilling to â€Å" do what is necessary† is favored over the company that refuses to engage in practices that are not ethical. The issue of bribery and corruption is not extensively covered in international or global marketing textbooks. The subject is often located under the rubric of legal environment (subtopic: ethics and regulations); cultural environment, (as in Hill 2005; Verna and Sarathy 1993). Or it is discussed as part of international promotions (Verna and Sarathy). For the most part the subject presents the the relevant US statute (FCPA) and analyzes its features and implications for the business person and marketer. A more comprehensive treatment, including its history and philosophical basis is found in textbooks dealing with the business environment (such as Baron 1997) and legal environment (such as Jennings 1997). This study will deal with the issue of bribery from the Western viewpoint, particularly that of the United States, being the first country to enact a law prohibiting its practice by its companies abroad. The Foreign Corrupt

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Scattering of Light

Scattering of Light Callum Lim Contents 1. Rayleigh scattering 1.1 Mid-day 1.2 Sunrise and sunset 1.3 Night-time 2. Mie scattering 2.1 Clouds 3. Pollution 3.1 Light pollution 3.2 Haze 4. Personal reflections 5. Conclusion 6. Bibliography 1. Rayleigh scattering When a beam of light travels through particles which are smaller than its wavelength, it is possible these particles scatter the light beam in a process known as Rayleigh scattering. This process is visible everyday whenever sunlight is scattered by the Earth’s atmosphere. As sunlight is composed of different visible wavelengths of light – mainly Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo and Violet; ROYGBIV – not all sunlight has the same probability of being scattered. It is possible to determine the amount of Rayleigh scattering that the different visible wavelengths in sunlight experience by calculating the intensity of the individual scattered wavelengths. The intensity of light scattered by small particles (I) depends on the intensity (I0) and wavelength (ÃŽ ») of the light source, the distance of the light source from the particle (R), the scattering angle (ÃŽ ¸), the refractive index of the particle (n), and the diameter of the particle (d). The relationship between these variables is illustrated in the following equation: (Seinfeld Pandis , 2006) 1.1 Mid-day When the Sun is directly overhead, all the wavelengths of light originating from it travel the same distance from the Sun and through our atmosphere and are scattered by the same medium (nitrogen and oxygen molecules). Hence, I0, R, ÃŽ ¸, n and d remain constant and the above equation can be simplified into: With this equation, it can be seen that the intensity of scattered light is inversely proportional to the fourth power of a light’s wavelength and that the shorter a light’s wavelength, the more intensely visible it is. Hence, as GBIV light (400nm to 500nm) have shorter wavelengths compared to ROY light (570nm to 700nm), GBIV light is more intensely visible to us. Due to the shorter wavelengths of GBIV light, they also have higher chances of encountering atmospheric molecules than the ROY light and getting scattered by it, as shown in the figure below. Although scattered light continues travelling in a random direction, a greater proportion of GBIV than ROY light reaches our eyes because GBIV wavelengths are shorter and more easily scattered. However, as our eyes detect the blue component in GBIV light that has been scattered the easiest (Leong, 2006), we see the mid-day sky as blue in colour. 1.2 Sunrise and sunset At sunrise and sunset, sunlight has to travel through a longer distance through the atmosphere than at mid-day before it is visible. As a result, sunlight encounters more atmospheric molecules during these times which results in more scattering of light. Hence, with this increased distance, even the higher wavelengths (ROY) are scattered, and this colours the sky reddish-orange. However, it is only at the horizons that the sky looks reddish-orange because the multiple rays of sunlight travel through different distances in the atmosphere due to refraction. As seen in the figure above, sunlight ray A penetrates the atmosphere very minimally and experiences very little refraction. As a result, it travels the shortest distance through the atmosphere and gets very little scattering. Thus, only the violet and indigo wavelengths are scattered. Sunlight ray B enters more deeply into atmosphere than A and gets refracted more. Hence, it has to travel a longer distance through the atmosphere which scatters most of BIV wavelengths. Before it leaves the atmosphere, however, the remaining wavelengths are scattered which results in a portion of the sky looking yellow. Sunlight ray C penetrates deepest into the atmosphere and experiences the most refraction. As it travels the longest distance of the three rays, its higher red and orange wavelengths are also scattered. This gives a portion of the sky its reddish-orange colour. Hence, this is why only the horizons are coloured reddish-orange while the rest of the sky remains blue during sunrise and sunset. 1.3 Night-time Sunlight reflected off the moon undergoes Rayleigh scattering as well, although its effects are not as visible. As mentioned earlier, the intensity of the light source (I0) and the distance of the light source from the particle (R) also affects the how intensely visible the scattered light is. Although the Moon is much closer to the Earth than the Sun, the light we get from it is much less intense than that from the Sun, thus reducing the intensity of scattered light. 2. Mie scattering Aside from Rayleigh scattering, another type of scattering, in the form of Mie scattering, exists. This occurs when sunlight encounters molecules which are comparable in size to its composite wavelengths. As a result, all visible wavelengths in sunlight are almost scattered equally. 2.1 Clouds On a daily basis, Mie scattering is observable when we look at clouds. As water vapour in clouds tend to be 20 micrometres in diameter (University of Illinois, 2010), all visible wavelengths in sunlight are scattered by clouds equally, thus giving clouds their white appearance. Bigger clouds or rain clouds usually look darker because they are bigger and contain more water vapour molecules. Thus, as these clouds scatter most of the sunlight that pass through them, very little sunlight exits through the bottoms of these clouds. Besides appearing white or grey, clouds can also appear reddish at sunrise or sunset. This is attributed to both Mie and Rayleigh scattering. At these times, sunlight travels a longer distance through the atmosphere and most of the shorter GBIV wavelengths are scattered just as sunlight enters the atmosphere. Hence, the further sunlight travels through the atmosphere, the greater the proportion of longer ROY wavelengths that remain. Thus, it is mainly the ROY wavelengths that are able to reach and get scattered by the clouds; and this causes clouds to appear reddish. Mie scattering is also observable on nights when moonlight is scattered by clouds in the sky and results in clouds appearing white. 3. Pollution 3.1 Light pollution On certain late nights, it is also possible to observe red clouds in the sky even when there is no source of light in the atmosphere. This phenomenon is a result of denser clouds scattering light from the city back down onto Earth. As Singapore is mostly lit up by yellow or orange light from streetlights, a greater proportion of longer wavelengths are scattered by the clouds thus making the clouds look red. However, if the clouds do not contain enough water vapour molecules and hence, are not large or dense enough, less city light is scattered. Thus, the redness visible in these clouds is not as pronounced and this is why red clouds are not always visible at night. Besides Mie scattering, city light also undergoes Rayleigh scattering at night, although its effect is not as obvious as scattered sunlight. While city light is mostly emitted in longer wavelengths and do not experience much Rayleigh scattering, its shorter wavelengths are greatly scattered by atmospheric particles as it travels through the atmosphere. Consequently, the shorter wavelengths of light scattered through Rayleigh scattering, together with the light scattered by clouds, increase the ambient brightness of Singapore’s night sky and inadvertently blocks out dimmer interstellar light that would otherwise be visible. Thus, this is why it is quite difficult to see deep-space objects in most of Singapore with the naked-eye. 3.2 Haze When dust and smoke particles from haze are present in the atmosphere, it becomes denser and causes light to undergo both Rayleigh and Mie scattering. This is because these particles typically range from 2.5 micrometres to 10 micrometres in diameter (Association of South East Asian Nations, 2014) and hence, are larger than visible light wavelengths. Thus, when the PSI is in the moderate range or worse, it is possible to see that all light appears muted and dull. At night, haze also causes Mie scattering of city light not only in clouds but throughout the sky. This results in significant portions night sky taking on a reddish glow. 4. Personal reflections Through this project, I now have a better understanding of why the sky and clouds appear to change in colour over time as well as why it is relatively difficult to observe the cosmos in a brightly lit city at night. The latter was evident when our group spent a day at Changi beach to photograph the colours changes in the sky. Just as we were leaving the seaside after twilight, we noticed that were more stars were visible in the night sky than what can normally be seen in the brighter urban areas of Singapore. Unfortunately, we did not have a good enough camera that was able to photograph the stars in the night sky then. One of the interesting things I have learnt from this project is also why the sky looks red on hazy nights, even when there is no light from the Sun or Moon. This is primarily due to light pollution that is scattered back down to Earth by smoke and dust particles in the atmosphere. Similarly, denser clouds at night appear red due to light pollution being scattered back down by water vapour within them. It is also because of light pollution that the adage â€Å"red sky at night, sailor’s delight† no longer holds true all the time, especially in cities that are brightly lit up at night. This is because the red sky at night might not be due to a high-pressure system in the west bringing calm weather, but due to manmade causes mentioned above (Teitel, 2012). This manmade phenomenon also has an implication on our circadian rhythms that act as our natural body clocks. Brighter skies at night could confuse our brains into thinking that it is daytime (and not time to sleep), thus disrupting our sleeping patterns and leaving us feeling jet-lagged. In the near future, the night sky might become even brighter as gas-discharge lights are replaced by light-emitting diode (LED) lights, which emit a greater concentration of shorter wavelengths (Teitel, 2012). Our circadian rhythms might be even more negatively affected by this increase in blue light, as they are especially sensitive to shorter wavelengths. A potential solution to mitigate this problem is to use warm white lights that emit minimal blue wavelengths. Additionally, understanding how light is affected by minute particles has also allowed humankind to apply these principles in real-life, such as in optical fibres. In optical fibres, light is used to transmit signals through cables made of transparent silica fibres. Since the silica molecules in these fibres are much smaller than the wavelength of visible light (Yao, 2010), Rayleigh scattering occurs within these cables and causes light to be scattered in a random direction instead of travelling through the cable. This is detrimental to signal strength. Hence, as Rayleigh scattering is extremely dependant on a light’s wavelength and short wavelengths of light scatter the most, optical fibres usually transmit signals in longer light wavelengths to minimise scattering. 5. Conclusion One of the most observable phenomena by the naked eye, the sky is often photographed at sunrise or sunset for its picturesque clouds. Besides just appreciating the beauty of these occurrences, I now understand the science behind them as well. Additionally, I also now know why the sky or clouds are red on certain nights even when there is no light from the Sun or the Moon. Besides the theoretical principles and atmospheric observations, scattering of light also has practical applications in real-life. In times before satellite imaging existed to forecast weather, people referred to colours in the night sky to determine if there would be good weather the next day. Today, knowledge of light scattering is also useful in deciding what wavelengths of light should be used when transmitting signals through optical fibres. In addition, understanding Rayleigh and Mie scattering also allows us to minimise to impact that bright skies might have on our natural body clocks. Thus, the study of light scattering not only allows us to better appreciate our atmosphere, but also apply these concepts in real-life. (1949 words; excluding citations) - End - 6. Bibliography Association of South East Asian Nations. (2014). Information on Fire and Haze. Retrieved 07 March, 2014, from ASEAN Haze Action Online: Leong, J. (2006). Number of Colors Distinguishable by the Human Eye. (G. Elert, Editor) Retrieved 26 March, 2014, from The Physics Factbook: Nave, C. R. (2012). Blue Sky. Retrieved 17 March, 2014, from hyperphysics: Seinfeld, J. H., Pandis , S. N. (2006). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, 2nd Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. Siegel, E. (08 September, 2009). Red sky at night†¦ but why? Retrieved 05 March, 2014, from Teitel, A. S. (23 August, 2012). Why Is the Night Sky Turning Red? Retrieved 28 February, 2014, from University of Illinois. (2010). Scattering of Light. Retrieved 29 March, 2014, from WW2010: Yao, C. (20 September, 2010). Optical Fiber Loss and Attenuation. Retrieved 17 March, 2014, from Fibre Optics For Sale Co.: GEK1520/PC1322 | Understanding the UniversePage 1 of 13

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Muslim and Non Muslim Laws :: essays research papers

Islamic law and non-Muslims Some pro-Israeli opinion cite traditional interpretations of sharia (Islamic law) which requires, among other things, that Muslim territory encompass all land that was ever under Muslim control, as a source for the Arab-Israeli conflict. Since the territory of Israel, prior to being the British Mandate of Palestine, was once part of the Ottoman caliphate, some Islamic clerics believe it is unlawful for any portion of it to remain 'usurped' by non-Muslims. By contrast, pro-Arab opinion points at the pronounced religious tolerance of the caliphates, where Christians and Jews coexisted "harmoniously" with Muslims and were granted limited self-autonomy. Resentment of Israeli Jews, this argument concludes, only emerged as a result from and after the rise of the Zionist enterprise in Palestine. Pro-Israeli views, however, often dismiss this explanation with the argument that Muslim Arab hostility towards Israel is largely derived from the sharia dictation that Jews or Christians are not to be considered equal to Muslims. Pro-Arab commentator view this as running counter to the tradition of tolerance towards "People of the Book" in Islam. They also point towards the long tradition of Palestinian Christians in their resistance to Israel and its policies, including such noted figures as Edward Said and George Habash, and the various Palestinian secular movements such as the PLO itself. In turn pro-Israeli proponents refer to a declining Christian Palestinian population (along with those of most Arab Christians) as, at least in part, a product of Muslim hostility towards non-Muslims, in general. According to a report published in December 2001 by the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies think tank.The Christian Exodus from the Middle East (http://www.defenddemocr, in December 1997 The Times noted: "Life in (PA ruled) Bethlehem has become insufferable for many members of the dwindling Christian minorities." The report also states that "Christians in the Palestinian territories have dropped from 15% of the Arab population in 1950 to just 2% today." Some Palestinian Christian are of the opinion that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has led to the diminishment of their population[[8] (][[9] (]. Ohers, like Abe Ata, a Palestinian Christian, are of the opinion that American Christians have "turned their backs" on them by supporting Israel [[10] (]. The Anglican bishop of Jerusalem, Riah Abu El-Assal, is recorded as being "intemperate in his attacks on Israel"[[11] ( iholo/hate_jews.html)]. Many Palestinian Christians have complained about Israel's treatment of them. One such complaint is that Israel does not give Palestinian Christians permission to visit holy places [12] (http://www.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Comparison of the Theories of Sigmund Freud and Emile Durkheim on Religion

Abstract This paper examines the works of Sigmund Freud and Emile Durkheim on religion, looking at how both theorists essentially viewed religion as serving an integral role in human culture. In particular, this essay considers how both theorist consider religious believers to be mistaken in their ontological beliefs, and the rational causes for this. Introduction While both Sigmund Freud and Emile Durkheim are concerned with the study of human behaviour as it relates to culture, each does so from within distinct traditions. In terms of religion, Freud’s approach belongs to the psychological tradition, while Durkheim puts forward a sociological approach. In the Freudian view, human behaviour is largely driven by inborn and intangible â€Å"drives†, working in the unconscious. Such phenomena are not directly observable, that is, they are non-empirical; they must consequently be inferred, and as such are conjectural. Durkheim’s sociological method, on the other hand, utilises direct empirical observations of social phenomena (rites, rituals, customs, et cetera), looking to account for the impetus behind and purpose of group behaviour. Hence Freud is concerned with obscure, intangible internal phenomena, whereas Durkheim is concerned with overt and tangible external phenomena. Evidently, the theoretical positions in question to a degree divide between internal and external motivations. Different Routes to the Core of a Delusion Durkheim posits a direct connection between environmental variables, the way groups interact with such variables, and how this interaction is perceived by individual members of said group. There is a mode of cyclical reflexivity in this dynamic: this means people â€Å"living together in society generate rules which are felt by any individual member as acting on him from outside, as having a force which he feels as both uplifting and constraining† (Scharf 1970, 151). This force, Durkheim argues, is an externalisation of conventions peculiar to the group; that are perceived as exogenous but which are in fact endogenous. This tendency to externalise, Durkheim suggests, derives from the natural human desire to ascribe meaning to experience, to seek a pattern in the natural order. Thus, as Kunin states, religion likewise â€Å"is an externalisation of society and its order† and speaks to the â€Å"dialectic relationship between the individual and society† (2003, 82). Religion, then, provides for an externalised object onto which collective emotion can be projected; this is ultimately reflexive because the externalisation at root represents the people themselves. As a result, to honour religious custom is indirectly to honour the group. This is why for Durkheim religious experience serves to strengthen group cohesion and bonding. Freud’s understanding of religion is somewhat pejorative. Connolly observes that Freud noticed â€Å"the connection between abnormal psychological conditions and religion† (1991, 146): which observation he expanded upon in his study â€Å"Obsessive acts and Religious Practices† (1907). As the paper’s title suggests, Freud drew a connection between psychological abnormality and religious practice, noting a resemblance between â€Å"what are called obsessive acts in neurotics and those religious observances by means of which the faithful give expression to their piety† (17). In turn, Fre ud perceived religion, like neurosis, as symptomatic of deep-seated psychological issues. In the words of Gallucci, â€Å"Freud saw religion as a collective neurotic symptom, an obsessional neurosis† (2001, 76). This â€Å"neurosis†, according to psychoanalytic theory, comes about as a defence mechanism against feelings of helplessness which obtain in a dispassionate cosmos. Hence the need for a cosmic father figure, who, as a parent comforts the child, palliates the religious subject with conciliatory notions (about purpose, meaning, boundaries, rewards, and so on). This entire dynamic apparently stems from Oedipal anxieties, where â€Å"each person grows up with a sense of foreboding toward a father figure who is both feared and loved†; this, it follows, â€Å"becomes the basis for the cosmic father figure, who offers protection and salvation but in the meantime needs to be appeased by devotion and sacrifice† (Clarke 2002, 43). In Freud’s mind, r eligion therefore constitutes a surrogate parent. On the surface, Freud and Durkheim proffer two seemingly quite different explanations for religion. Importantly, while these theories are not overtly complementary, nor are they mutually exclusive. Indeed, significant parallels may be drawn between each approach. For example, both both theorists argued that religion is an important factor in community cohesion (Scharf 1970, 155); both agree that â€Å"religion is central to any cultural analysis† (Ginsburg and Pardes 2006, 220); and, thus, both hold that â€Å"that the cognitive roots of religious belief are to be found in social experience† (Spiro 1987, 202). These similarities are significant and, moreover, point to one common determinant: that the underlying basis of religious convictions are contrary to what believers suppose. For Durkheim, the real driving force behind religion is social cohesion; for Freud, the impetus is psychological assuagement. In either case, social unity and mental wellbeing obtain, only for slightly different conceptual reasons. From the above, one might argue that Freud and Durkheim share significant overarching perspectives on religion while holding markedly different structural viewpoints on how and why religion functions. Freud is concerned with psychological structures; Durkheim with sociological structures. Freud believes religion works to console believers from the ultimate anxiety of a meaningless cosmos. Durkheim believes religion provides for a canvas on which social phenomena can be externalised and then re-accommodated as an exogenous entity. Again, both modes of behaviour essentially work to the same purpose: instilling a sense of meaning in human life. At this stage, one might consider the ways in which Freudian theory could compensate for shortfalls in the work of Durkheim and vice versa. For instance, Durkheim offers little in the way of early psychological developmental insights, into the religious pr ocess; yet there is no reason that early anxiety (of an Oedipal nature) could not cohere with Durkheimian ideas. Indeed, such anxiety and the consequent potential for neurosis could suggest an even greater need for group cohesion: as a way of reifying the delusion through consensus, thus alleviating the anxiety. Again, this would chime with Durkheim’s understanding that religion is â€Å"a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things [. . .] which unite in one single moral community called a Church† (cited in Gain 2010, 39). By the same token, Freud’s limitations could perhaps be overcome with reference to some of Durkheim’s insights. Scharf notes a â€Å"weakness of Freudian theory† in that it â€Å"does little to explain [the] variety† in articulations of paternity and fraternity within religious discourse, advising that, here, â€Å"Durkheim’s structural approach has more value† (1970, 154). Accordingly we see that a synthesis of theoretical approaches may not only be possible but highly advantageous. Conclusion Freud and Durkheim take very different roads to arrive at more or less the same destination. For this reason, significant and consistent core elements may be identified between their works. These include the fundamental belief that religion serves an explicable, material, social purpose which is essentially external to theological concerns; that religious believers are at base mistaken in their beliefs (insomuch as these beliefs are connected to cosmic phenomena beyond the rationally explicable); that, it follows, religion is the irrational articulation of an ultimately rational cause (anxiety or clan behaviour); that religion can function as a surrogate or projection of humanity – reformed with divine auspices; and that, finally, religion is an integral element of human culture. What is fundamentally different in these two authors is their methodological priorities. Each man comes from a very distinct tradition. Put simply, Freud and Durkheim were engaged in different discipl ines; as a result, their pursuits were orientated differently The reason Freud and Durkheim’s works are compared at all is that the realms of the sociological and of the psychological possess mutual territory: the grounds of culture. Both theorists have their limitations. Durkheim can be accused of being over reductive and simplistic. Social structure may not be enough to account for every aspect of religion. Psychological, cognitive and other inborn factors may also have a large part to play. Freud, on the other hand, may place too much onus on the unconscious drives in dictating religious experience. After all, religion is so varied and complex, it might be argued, to defy any wholesale theory to explain it away. What, for example, do we make of religions in which there is no â€Å"father figure† proper; or religions which proclaim no deity at allClearly there are unanswered questions on both sides of the aisle. Perhaps a hybrid methodology that adopted a syncretic a pproach to the study of religion might help answer these questions. After all, it seems to be the case that both Freud and Durkheim arrived at crucial insights into the social and psychological determinants that drive religion. References Clarke, P. J. (2002) Explaining Philosophy and Ethics. Cheltenham: Nelson Thomas. Connolly, P. (1991) â€Å"Psychological Approaches†. In: Connolly, P. ed. Approaches to the Study of Religion. New York: Continuum, pp. 135-193. Durkheim, E. (1912). The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. (J. Swain, Trans.) New York: The Free Press. Freud, S. (1907) â€Å"Obsessive Acts and Religious Practices†. In: J Strachey (ed. and trans.) Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth Press. Gain, M., 2010. On Durkheim’s Rules of Sociological Method (Routledge Revivals). New York: Routledge. Gallucci, G. M., 2001. Plato and Freud: Statesmen of the Soul. Philadelphia: Xlibris. Ginsburg, R. & Pardes, L., 2006. New Perspectives on Freud’s Moses and Monotheism. Tubingen: Niemeyer. Kunin, S. D., 2003. Religion: The Modern Theories. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Scharf, B. R., 1970. â€Å"Durkheimian and Freudian Theories of Religion: The Case of Judaism†, The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 21. 2 (June), pp. 151-163. Spiro, M. E., 1987. Culture and Human Nature. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Developmental Psychology and Anecdotal Assignment

CLDDV 101 Anecdotal Observation Assignments â€Å"Education of the mind without education of the heart is not education at all. † Aristotle Goal – Observing Children The goal of observation is to enhance your understanding of the major concepts and milestones of development through observation of real children rather than just reading or hearing about how children grow and develop. Child development refers to the kinds of changes that occur from conception through late adolescence.Physical (fine and gross/large motor), cognitive, emotional, social, self-help, and aesthetic development will be explored through these observations, providing a brief account of development as it occurs. In addition, using well-written anecdotal records teachers are better able to track a child’s interests, how a child is getting along, learning, and progressing in a program, become the basis for planning developmentally appropriate curriculum to help the child build skills, and have documentation to support classroom assessments.Observations, recorded over time, and representative of all domains of development can present a comprehensive picture of a child’s development . Child Development/Developmental Domains: Child development focuses on the processes of change and stability in children from conception through late adolescence. Developmental scientists study both quantitative change and qualitative change in children. Quantitative change is a change in number or amount, such as in height, weight, size of vocabulary, or frequency of communication and is continuous throughout childhood.Qualitative change is a change in kind, structure, or organization and is discontinuous. It is marked by the emergence of new phenomena that cannot be anticipated easily on the basis of earlier functioning. One example is the change from a nonverbal child to one who understands words and can use them to communicate. The processes of change and stability that developmental scientists study occur in domains. For purposes of study, developmental scientists separate the domains into different aspects of the self including physical (small and large muscles), cognitive, emotional, and personalsocial.All domains are interrelated. Physical Development: growth of the body and brain, the development of sensory capacities and motor skills including health. Cognitive Development: change and stability in mental abilities, such as learning, memory, language, thinking, moral reasoning, and creativity. Emotional Development: change and stability in the development of a full range of emotional responses to events and interactions from sad to happy to angry, and learning to deal with them appropriately. Social Development: growth in one’s ability to interact and communicate with others in meaningful ways. 01 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 1 Piaget’s Concrete Pre-operational Stage (2-7 years of age) The preschool-aged children that you will be observing have entered into Piaget’s preoperational stage of cognitive development. The key feature of children’s thinking in this stage is symbolic representation. The child is now able to use a symbol, an object, or a word to stand for something else. The use of symbols can be clearly seen in the child’s use of language; for example, the child can now represent objects in the environment with the appropriate word and can refer to past and future events.The use of symbols is also apparent in children’s drawings, imitation, mental imagery, and symbolic play. For example, a preoperational child might be observed feeding her doll imaginary cereal or drawing a picture of the balloons at her last birthday party. Thinking in terms of symbols does permit more flexibility and planning in their problem solving. Despite these increases in cognitive skills, the thought processes of preoperational children result in characteristic differences in reasoning. Because they do no t use logical operations, their reasoning often seems flawed to adults.One of the most easily observed differences in how preoperational children reason at this age is the tendency to view the world from one’s own perspective only, a phenomenon that Piaget termed egocentrism. Because of egocentric thinking, preoperational children may â€Å"hide† by covering their eyes or only parts of their bodies, believing that if they can’t see the seeker than they, themselves, can’t be seen. Other preoperational reasoning errors result from thinking that is intuitive, rather than logical.For example, preschool children are incapable of conservation – they do not understand that certain properties of objects, such as volume or mass, do not change just because the superficial appearance of the object changes. Preoperational children are not only tied to their perceptions, they are also unable to de-center their thinking, or think about more than one aspect of a problem at a time. Their thinking shows what Piaget called irreversibility – they are unable to reverse or mentally undo an action. During this stage of development, children acquire new words at an astronomical rate.These rapid gains in children’s vocabulary are accompanied by mastery of more complex grammatical structures such as forming past tenses and plurals. As children acquire the grammatical rules of their language, a type of error called overregularization may occur in which children overuse the basic rules of language. For example, a 2 ? or 3-year-old may say, â€Å"I bringed my puppy,† or â€Å"My feets are cold. † Children also become more likely to use correct syntax – that is, they become more aware of how words should be ordered to convey a particular meaning. Children’s knowledge about gender and gender-role expectations develops very early.Preschoolers have a strong sense of gender identity, a sense of being male or female. Between the ages of 4 and 6, children develop gender constancy; the realization that gender stays the same regardless of how one looks or behaves. At this point, they may adopt very rigid standards for what they believe is appropriate male and female dress and behavior. 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 2 Preschool children are more likely to play with sex-appropriate toys; that is, boys are more likely to play with stereotypical â€Å"boy toys† – such as trucks; and girls are more likely to play with stereotypical â€Å"girl toys† – such as dolls and kitchen sets.Over the preschool years, gender segregation also increases, as children are more likely to play with same-sex peers rather than opposite-sex peers. Preoperational children’s social interactions become increasingly reciprocal and coordinated, which is reflected in their play. Children’s play can be divided into four categories, ranging from least to most socially complex – nonsocial activity (onlooker and solitary), parallel play, associative play, and cooperative play. Around the age of 4 of 5 there is a developmental shift in the type of play in which children engage.Four and five year olds begin to demonstrate constructive play, drawing pictures or working on puzzles in pairs or groups, purposefully creating and constructing something together. Play also becomes more complex as children begin to experiment with both everyday and imaginary roles through pretend or dramatic play. This type of play involves advances in cognition, perspective taking, and communication skills. While there are individual differences in development, most children develop typically.Some children, however, may show significant maturational delays or differences – these children are often identified with developmental disabilities. While many developmental disabilities are identified based on delays or differences from what we know of typical development, and differe nt labels are used to describe the patterns of difference. It is important to remember, however, that a child with a disability is first and foremost a child, and that all children are typical in many ways. So instead of saying ‘disabled child’, it is more appropriate and respectful to state ‘a child with a disability. Writing Skills †¢ If you struggle with your writing skills, there are several resources including enrolling in CLDDV-48, securing a mentor through the Mentor Program (see instructor for referral), utilizing MJC’s writing lab or tutoring center, or working with a skilled highschool or college student or peers to review your assignments before they are due. The following pointers will help your success in writing effective and informative observational reports. o Use the spell and grammar check functions in your computer’s writing program. Carefully review versions of commonly used words such as they’re (they are), their (the ir shoes), and there (There are the missing shoes. ) o Carefully review words such as then and than ? Then connotes the relationship between actions, such as, â€Å"We will learn about anecdotal records and then running records. † ? Than connotes a comparative measurement, such as, â€Å"Amanda is taller than Dylan. † o The over use of the word â€Å"then† is another area to consider. Try to limit your use of it in your observational reports as it is often used excessively. o Learn the correct format for quotations.Anytime you are reporting what the child said, you must use the standard quotation format. Example: Kevin could not reach the ball. He said, â€Å"Teacher will you get the ball for me? † †¢ 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 3 o When children are using tricycles, the word that describes how their feet work is pedal. Examples: He pedaled. She pedaled. He was pedaling. o Write your anecdotal observational reports in past tense. This means y our verbs will often end in â€Å"ed†. Examples: Julia played with the trains. Kevin walked from the blocks to the carpet area. Keifer asked the teacher, â€Å"May I have my turn now? How to record your observation: Directions †¢ Observations must occur in a licensed preschool center-based program. Licensed children’s centers are programs that operate either preschool and/or full-day childcare services for children between 30 months and 5 years of age. They are licensed by the State of California, Department of Social Services, Community Care Licensing and receive site visits and inspections on a regular basis. †¢ The following are NOT acceptable as observation sites: family child care homes, faith based nursery programs, family events, park visits, or play dates.Past experience has demonstrated that these observations are not effective for the purpose of this course. †¢ Select a program that is willing to work cooperatively with you and provide the nec essary information such as the child’s birth date. It is appropriate to give a fictitious name to the child to keep the child’s name anonymous. †¢ Find a position where you can observe without interfering or interacting with the activities of the classroom. Come prepared with your paper and writing implements so that you do not interrupt the staff. A clipboard or supportive binder is appropriate, so that you can write â€Å"on your lap. Keep a low profile. †¢ Computer Generated Work/Word Processed Work/Paper Headings: All papers must be word processed (typewritten), with no less than a 12 font, space and a half. In addition, each paper submitted is required to be labeled with the information below in the top left hand corner of the first page. Please number each page and staple all pages together. †¢ Papers will be graded as follows: o Required Information – 10% o Conforms to format provided – 10% o Written content, answers assignment â₠¬â€œ 50% o Writing (grammar, spelling, syntax, structure, etc. – 30% †¢ Developmental Domains/required to focus on for each observation o Anecdote #1-Physical Development/Large Motor Skills (i. e. pedaling a tricycle, hopping, skipping, swinging) or Physical Development/Small Motor Skills (i. e. cutting, drawing, painting, beading) o Anecdote #2- Cognitive Development (i. e. pre-math, science, memory, cause/effect, following directions) o Anecdote #3-Emotional Development (i. e . typically there will be some type of social interaction where you record the child’s emotional response to the interaction) 01 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 4 o Anecdote #4-Social Development (i. e. a social interaction between the child you select and one other child; you may NOT record an observation between a child and an adult. ) Please record the conversation between the two children. This anecdote may be slightly longer than your first three anecdotal observations. Anecdote: †¢ †¢ Write verbs in past tense. Select ONE preschool-aged child who is 3, 4, or 5 years of age. The child you select is the focus in your anecdote. Follow the child as s/he moves, if necessary.Quickly record in sequence all activity and try to quote, word for word, the child’s speech. It is not necessary to quote a teacher’s comments; just summarize teacher comments. Your very first sentence in the anecdote needs to identify that the child who is the primary focus. Observe and document in writing a developmentally significant event; keep written documentation for later use when typing so that you are not pulling from memory. A developmentally significant event is representative of the child’s particular age and stage of development.Typically, a significant event in the child’s day is something that you would share with the parent/caregiver at the end of the day while discussing the child’s growth and development. Be specific and date each ane cdote. Times – note beginning time of significant moment. The anecdote is one short story, which is organized around a beginning, middle and end of a story. Some anecdotes may be 15 minutes long (i. e. several sentences) especially when documenting social interactions and conversations but most will be 2-3 minutes long (i. . 5-7 sentences. ) Avoid subjective statements where you give your opinion or make inferences about things like, o Goodness or badness (instead of saying that the child’s behavior was bad, state that when the other child grabbed the puzzle, the child reached over and hit) o Intentions (instead of saying that the child was waiting for the teacher to notice him, state without saying a word, the child was quietly standing next to his teacher) o Feelings/Emotions (instead of saying child is mad, state child is stomping feet, etc. †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Skill Building: †¢ †¢ †¢ Verbs will be written in a mixture of tenses as you share what child did in the past in order to explain child’s current skill base Include two specific skills that the child is learning as from the documented significant event. Write two complete sentences and identify the domain area (i. e. aesthetic development; cognitive development, emotional development; physical development/fine motor; physical development/ large motor; elf-help skills; social development. ) 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 5 Subjective Summary: †¢ †¢ †¢ Verbs will be written in a mixture of tenses as you share what child did in the past in order to explain child’s current skill base You, the observer, share your professional opinion about what you observed during the developmentally significant moment. When you share your opinion, follow it with a statement of something observed to support your statement.Stay away from words such a good and great and also stay away from labeling and diagnosing behavior such as att ention-deficit or autism. ) Suggestion to help the child continue to progress (When making the suggestion, take a look at the child’s current skill base and then make a suggestion to scaffold to a more complex activity): †¢ You, the observer, share your professional recommendation for future curriculum activities. Suggest similar activities that will help the child increase proficiency in the area that s/he is building skills.If the child appears to be at the mastery level of his/her developmental stage of development, then suggest a more complex activity that you believe is still developmentally appropriate for that child. 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 6 Sample Anecdotal Assignment (Set up your assignment using this same format; the sample format in the syllabus is not correct. You are welcome to copy and paste this sample into your own word document and then replace the existing information with your information. CLDDV 101 Last name, first name: Smith, Laurie Tit le of Assignment: Anecdotal Observation #1 Due Date: Wednesday, September 15, 2010 Date Turned In: Wednesday, September 15, 2010 (on time) or Wednesday, September 22, 2010 (late) (Note: if you are turning in the assignment on time, then you will enter the same date for â€Å"Due Date† and â€Å"Date Turned In. † If you are turning it in 7 days late, then you will enter two different dates. Name of preschool: Address of preschool: Phone number of preschool: Name of head teacher: Date of visit: Time of significant event: Number of teachers present: Number of children present: Name of child (it is okay to give the child a fictitious name): Angelica Birth date of child: January, 2006 Age of child including years and months: 4 years and 8 months Focused on the following developmental domain: Physical Development/Large Motor Objective Anecdote (do NOT use subjective words such as happy, sad, nervous, excited): While outside during free choice, Angelica walked over to Daisy a nd asked, â€Å"Do you want to go swing? Daisy responded with a smile on her face, and then they ran to the swings. With the help of a teacher giving Angelica some starter pushes, she smiled and began to pump. She looked at Daisy and said, â€Å"Look. I’m up so high! † Daisy, who was pumping on the swing next to her, responded by saying, â€Å"Me too. † Angelica continued to swing next to Daisy for a few more minutes before moving to another activity. Skill Building (select from chart below or create your own): In terms of Angelica’s physical development/large motor skills, she is developing balance and strengthening the large muscles in her arms and legs as she pumps on the swing.A second skill that Angelica is building is in the area of social development. The emergence of prosocial behavior is observed as she respectfully invites the other child to swing and then continues to interact with her in a positive manner during this interaction. Subjective S ummary (in this area you can use your opinion): After observing Angelica swing, it is believed that she has well-developed physical coordination in the area of her large motor skills as she is able to sustain pumping on the 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 7 swing with just a little help from the teacher getting her started.In addition, Angelica appears to play well with other children as noted when she not only respectfully invited another child to swing, but also continued to initiate a conversation with the other child while swinging. Suggestion to help the child continue to progress (When making the suggestion, take a look at the child’s current skill base and then make a suggestion to scaffold to a more complex activity): In the area of curriculum development, it is suggested that Angelica continue to be provided with opportunities to engage in large motor activities such as swinging, running, jumping, climbing, and pedaling on a tricycle.Since, she already knows how to pump while on the swing, it is suggested that the teachers show her how to start the swing moving back and forth without the help of a teacher. This is a difficult skill to learn, so it is important to allow Angelica the choice to start on her own and/or get a starter push from a teacher as she works on skill building in this area. (If she was not able to pump at four years and eight months, you might say: She is encouraged to continue to practice swinging with the support of a teacher who can break down the steps as she teaches her how to pump.If she was only three years old, you might say: She is encouraged to continue to have positive experiences on the swing with the help of a teacher putting her on the swing and pushing her. As she grows older, a teacher can break down the steps as she teaches her how to pump. ) 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 8 Use this chart to help you locate skills that the child is developing. The Creative Curriculum Goals and Objectives at a Glance SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Sense of Self Learning and Problem Solving -Shows ability to adjust to new situations. Observes objects and events with curiosity. -Demonstrate appropriate trust in adults. -Approaches problems flexibly -Recognizes own feelings and manages -Shows persistence in approaching tasks. them appropriately. -Explores cause and effect. -Stands up for rights. -Applies knowledge or experience to a new context. Responsibility for Self and Others -Demonstrates self-direction and independence. -Takes responsibility for own well being. -Respects and cares for classroom environment and materials. -Follows classroom routines. -Follows classroom rules. Prosocial Behavior -Plays well with other children. Recognizes the feelings of others and responds appropriately. -Shares and respects the rights of others. -Uses thinking skills to resolve conflicts. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: Gross Motor -Demonstrates basic locomotor skills (i. e. running, jumping, hop ping, galloping. ) -Shows balance while moving. -Climbs up and down. -Pedals and steers a tricycle (or other wheeled vehicle. ) -Demonstrates throwing, kicking, and catching skills. Fine Motor -Controls small muscles in hands. -Coordinates eye-hand movement. -Uses tools for writing and drawing. Logical Thinking -Classifies objects. Compares/measures. -Arranges objects in a series (i. e. sequence/set. ) -Recognizes patterns and can repeat them. -Shows awareness of time concepts and sequence. -Uses one-to-one correspondence. -Uses numbers and counting. Representation and Symbolic Thinking -Takes on pretend roles and situations. -Makes believe with others. -Makes and interprets representations (i. e. be a symbol for. ) LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: Listening and Speaking -Hears and discriminates the sounds of language. -Expresses self using words and expanded sentences. -Understands and follows oral directions. Answers questions. -Asks questions. -Actively participates in conversations. Readin g and Writing -Enjoys and values reading. -Demonstrates understanding of print concepts. -Demonstrates knowledge of alphabet. -Uses emerging reading skills to make meaning from print. -Comprehends and interprets meaning from books and other texts. -Understands the purpose of writing. -Writes letters and words. 2001 Teaching Strategies, Inc. Washington, DC. Permission is granted to duplicate in programs implementing The Creative Curriculum. 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 9Use the following ideas to help you locate more skills that the child is developing. The developmental domain area (i. e. physical development, cognitive development, etc. ) is not identified; therefore, you will need to identify the domain area when selecting skills from below. What Children Learn from Play WHEN I EASEL PAINT I LEARN: -to develop imagination and creativity. -hand-eye coordination. -to distinguish and purposely create shapes. -to express feelings and ideas. -that ideas have value. -relationship s of space and size. -concepts of symmetry, balance, and design.WHEN I CUT WITH SCISSORS I LEARN: -to control the small muscles in my hand. -concepts of shape, size, color, and location. -to exercise imagination and creativity. WHEN I SCRIBBLE AND DRAW I LEARN: -to hold a pencil or other drawing implement and to control the pressure. -hand-eye coordination. -to exercise imagination and creativity. -that ideas have value. -Concepts of shape, size, color, and location. WHEN I FINGER PAINT I LEARN: -to exercise imagination and creativity. -about how colors mix to make new colors (science. ) -concepts and shape, size, color, and location. hand-eye coordination. -an acceptable way to make a mess, and have fun sharing ideas with others who are near. WHEN I PASTE, GLUE, AND COLLAGE I LEARN: -to exercise imagination and creativity. -concepts of shape, size, color and location, and design, relevant to reading. -about different textures. -how to create patterns and designs, a math skill. WHEN I PLAY WITH PLAY DOUGH OR CLAY I LEARN: -to see the shape against the background of the table, a reading skill. -concepts of shapes, sizes, length, and height. -to see negative space when cookie cutter shapes are taken away. to express feelings, especially negative feelings with squeezing and pounding. -to exercise imagination and creativity. -that the amount of a substance remains the same even when the shape changes. WHEN I PLAY WITH SAND I LEARN: –to exercise my imagination. –concepts of size, shape, and volume; empty and full. –how to use tools. –to solve problems. –concepts of warm and cool, wet, damp, and dry, heavy and light. –how to play socially with others. 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 10 –to create own patterns and symbols, reading and writing skills. –to observe changes, a science skill.EXAMINING OBJECTS AT A NATURE TABLE HELPS ME LEARN: -new vocabulary. -concepts of texture, color, weight, and size. -to gro up objects into categories. -to observe likenesses and differences. -to appreciate nature and develop a sense of wonder. WHEN I SORT THINGS I LEARN: -to notice details, likenesses, differences and to form categories, essential reading and math skills. -concepts of color, size, and shape. -numeral concepts of more and less. -logical reasoning. WHEN I STRING BEADS I LEARN: -hand-eye coordination. -concepts of color, shape, and location. number concepts like more, less, longer, and shorter. -to create and reproduce patterns. -pride in accomplishment. WHEN I PLAY WITH PEGBOARDS I LEARN: -one-to-one correspondence, one peg for one hole, a pre-math skill. -to make and repeat patterns, a pre-math skill. -concepts of addition as I add one peg at a time. -colors. -symmetry, shapes, order, and design. -hand-eye coordination. WHEN I DO COOKING PROJECTS I LEARN: -about nutrition, tastes, and food groups. -how heat and cold change things. -concepts of volume and measure. -vocabulary. -whole-part relationships, math concepts. awareness of my own and other cultures. WHEN I PLAY WITH BLOCKS, CARS, AND TRUCKS I LEARN: -concepts of shape, size, length and location, all reading and math skills. -to create and repeat patterns, a math skill. -to exercise imagination. -to express ideas. -to cooperate with others. -to solve problems. -about the properties of wood. -to see oneself from a different perspective, that of a giant. WHEN I DO THINGS FOR MYSELF (SELF-HELP SKILLS), I LEARN: -to competently care for own needs. -to control the small muscles in hands when buttoning and zipping. -to problem solve. to see oneself from a different perspective, that of a capable person. -self-confidence, as new skills are mastered. -I can teach others to help themselves. -awareness of the importance of hygiene when I wash my hands before eating or after toileting. WHEN I PLAY ON RIDING TOYS I LEARN: -strength, balance, and large muscle coordination. -to use energy in a constructive way. -concepts o f speed, direction, and location. -to use imagination as I pretend to be different characters and to make different â€Å"road† noises. 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 11 -to negotiate and take turns. to solve problems -self-confidence, as I master new skills. WHEN I PLAY ON CLIMBING EQUIPMENT I LEARN: -physical strength, coordination, and balance. -to use imagination. -to cooperate with others when involved in group play. -to solve problems. -self-confidence as I develop new skills. WHEN I PARTICIPATE IN CIRCLE TIME ACTIVITIES I LEARN: -to listen, sit still, and understand spoken words. -that ideas added to the discussion have value. -to wait when others are talking. -new vocabulary words. -to remember the words of songs and poems I have learned. -the names of others in the group. to cooperate and be considerate of the needs of others. -to help plan what we will do and what we will need to do it. WHEN I LOOK AT BOOKS AND LISTEN TO STORIES I LEARN: -that learning to read is important and enjoyable. -that letters on a page represent words. -to express own thoughts, feelings and ideas better. -to exercise imagination. -to interpret pictures to represent words and ideas. -to listen well to spoken language. -to make up own stories. -to handle books with care. -to recognize certain words when I see them in print. -to use more complex language patterns in my own speech. to follow the development of thoughts and ideas in the plot of a story. Reading to children frequently is one of the surest ways to ensure that they themselves will become eager and capable readers. WHEN I SING SONGS I LEARN: -principles of music and rhythm -vocabulary. -memory skills and sequencing. -to be conscious of others. -various concepts emphasized in songs. -â€Å"auditory discrimination† recognizing differences in sounds, necessary for learning to read. -awareness and identification with my culture and other cultures. WHEN I PLAY RHYTHM INSTRUMENTS I LEARN: -to be consciou s of rhythm in music. concepts of fast, slow, loud, and soft. -to express oneself in new and different ways. -listening skills. -â€Å"auditory discrimination† recognizing differences in sounds, necessary for learning to read. -to interpret and understand signals and cues. WHEN I PLAY LETTER GAMES I LEARN: -to recognize and name upper and lower case letters. -to associate letters with the sounds they represent. -to recognize own name and other words. WHEN I DANCE I LEARN: -balance and coordination. -to be conscious of the moods and rhythms of the music. -to express myself physically. 101 anecdotal assignment 9/29/2010 12 WHEN I PLAY WITH PUPPETS I LEARN: -to express ideas with words. -to take on the role of someone else. -to use voice tones as well as words. -to use imagination. WHEN I PLAY IN THE DRESS-UP AREA I LEARN: -to be flexible in my thinking and to make decisions. -to express oneself with my words. -to try on different adult roles. -to solve social problems through n egotiation with friends. -to sort and organize play things. -to improvise and use things in a symbolic way to represent something else, abstract thinking. -to exercise my imagination and creativity.WHEN I SAY GOOD-BYE TO MY FAMILY WHEN I ARRIVE TO SCHOOL I LEARN: -that the loving relationships that I have created with my family provide me with the confidence and the ability to create caring relationships at school with my teachers and my friends. -how to say goodbye. -to express how I feel; and I learn that my feelings will be accepted. -that my family will consistently return each day to take me home. -that I am a capable person. 2001 Teaching Strategies, Inc. Washington, DC. Permission is granted to duplicate in programs implementing The Creative Curriculum. 101 anecdotal assignment 09/29/2010 13

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Sample Letters of Continued Interest

Sample Letters of Continued Interest If you find yourself waitlisted or deferred at one of your top college choices, the following samples can help guide you as you  write a letter of continued interest. Waitlist Letter Samples A letter of continued interest does not guarantee your eventual acceptance to the school, and it may not improve your chances at all. That said, it cant hurt, and your display of interest in the program and your dedication and outreach may help. Alexs Letter Mr. Andrew QuackenbushDirector of AdmissionsBurr UniversityCollegeville, USADear Mr. Quackenbush,I was recently waitlisted for the [current year] school year; I am writing to express my continued interest in Burr University. I am particularly drawn to the schools Music Education program - the outstanding faculty and state-of-the-art facilities are what specifically make Burr University my top choice.I also wanted to inform you that since I submitted my application, I have been awarded the Nelson Fletcher Prize for Excellence in Music by the Treeville Community Foundation. This award is given to a high school senior every year after a state-wide competition. This award means a lot to me, and I believe it shows my dedication and continued passion in music and music education. I have attached an updated resumà ©Ã‚  with this information added to it.Thank you so much for you time and consideration. If you have any further questions, please let me know. I look forward to hearing from yo u.Sincerely,Alex Student Discussion of Alexs Letter Students should keep in mind that writing a letter of continued interest (also known  as LOCI) is not a guarantee that they will be moved off of the waitlist as an accepted student. While new information can be helpful, it may not be enough to sway the Admissions Offices decision. But dont let that discourage you from writing a LOCI.  If nothing else, it shows the school you are dedicated, mature, attentive, and very much interested in its programs. At many schools, demonstrated interest plays a role in admissions decisions.   Alex addressed his letter to the Director of Admissions, which is a good choice. Whenever possible, use the name of the person who sent you the letter or email telling you of your admissions status. To Whom It May Concern sounds generic and impersonal, something you want to avoid. You want to create a personal connection with the admissions office. Alexs letter is fairly short. This is a good idea  because going on at length about your interest, your improved test scores, or your passion for education may come off as sounding desperate or vain, and it wastes the time of the admissions staff. Here, with only a few short paragraphs, Alex gets his message across without being too wordy. Alex briefly mentions that this school is his top choice. This is good information to include, but more importantly, Alex goes into  why  it is his top choice. Having specific reasons for being interested in a school can show the Admissions Office that you have done your research and that your interest in their school is informed and sincere.  That kind of attention to detail and individual interest can set you apart from others on the waitlist.   Alex thanks the Director at the close of the letter, and his writing/communication skills are strong. While he writes a convincing and mature letter, it is also respectful in that he does not demand to be bumped from waitlisted to accepted. Whatever anger and frustration Alex is feeling does not appear in the letter, and he shows a pleasing level of maturity and professionalism. Hannahs Letter Mrs. A. D. MissionsDirector of AdmissionsState UniversityCityville, USADear Mrs. Missions,Thank you for taking the time to read my application. I know that State University is a very selective school, and Im happy to be included on the schools waitlist. Im writing to express my continued interest in the school, and to include some new information to add to my application.Since I applied to State University, I retook the SAT; my previous scores were lower than I would have liked, and I wanted a second chance to prove myself. My math score is now 670 and  my evidence-based reading score is 690. Im much happier with these scores, and I wanted to share this improvement with you. Im having the official scores sent to State University.I understand that this new information may not impact my position on the waitlist, but I wanted to share it with you nonetheless. Im still very excited about the prospect of joining the State University History Department, and of working with its extensive American History archives.Thank you for your time and consideration.Sincerely,Hannah Highschooler Discussion of Hannahs Letter Hannahs letter is another good example of what to include in a letter of continued interest. She writes well, and she keeps the letter short and respectful. She doesnt come across as angry or presumptuous, and she states her case well while remembering her letter does not guarantee she will be accepted. In the second paragraph, Hannah presents new information: her updated and higher  SAT scores. We dont see how much of an improvement these scores are from her old ones. However, these new scores are well above average. She doesnt make excuses for her  poor scores. Instead, she focuses on the positive and shows her improvement by sending the scores to the school. In the final paragraph, she expresses her interest in the school  with specific information about  why  she wants to attend. This is a good move; it shows that she has specific reasons  why she wants to attend this college in particular. It may not be enough to impact her status, but it shows the Admissions Office she cares about the school and really does want to be there. All in all, Hannah and Alex have written strong letters. They may not  get off of the waitlist, but with these letters, they have demonstrated themselves to be interested students with additional information to help their cases. Its always good to be realistic about your chances when writing a letter of continued interest and to know that it probably wont end up making a difference. But it never hurts to try, and new information that strengthens your application can make a difference. Sample Bad Letter of Continued Interest Ms. Molly MonitorDirector of AdmissionsHigher Ed UniversityCityville, USATo Whom It May Concern:Im writing to you in regards to my current admissions status. HEU is my top choice, and while I understand being on the waitlist isnt a rejection, I was very disappointed in being put on this list. I am hoping to state my case for you and convince you to move me to the top of the list, or to change my status to admitted.As I wrote in my application, Ive been on the Honor Roll for the past six semesters. Ive also received numerous awards at area art shows. My art portfolio, which I submitted as part of my application, was some of my best work, and clearly college-level work. When Im enrolled at HEU, my work will only improve, and I will continue to work hard.HEU is my top choice, and I really want to attend. Ive been rejected from three other schools, and accepted to a school that I dont really want to attend. Im hoping you can find a way to admit me, or least move me to the top of the wait list.Thank you in advance for your help!Sincerely,Lana Anystudent A Critique of Lanas Letter Right from the start, Lana is taking the wrong tone. While its not a major issue, she starts the letter with To Whom It May Concern, even though she is writing it to the Director of Admissions. If possible, address your letter to a person, being sure to spell his or her name and title correctly.   In her first paragraph, Lana makes the mistake of sounding both frustrated and presumptuous. While being waitlisted is not a positive experience, you shouldnt let that disappointment come through in your LOCI. She goes on to point out the ways in which the admissions office has made a mistake in placing her on the waitlist. Instead of presenting new information, such as higher test scores or a new award, she reiterates the achievements she has already listed on her application. By using the phrase when Im enrolled... she is presuming that her letter will be enough to take her off the waitlist; this makes her come off as arrogant and less likely to succeed in her attempt. Finally, Lana writes that she is desperate; shes been rejected at other schools, and accepted to a school she doesnt want to attend. Its one thing to let the school know they are your top choice, for this is a small but helpful piece of information. Its another thing to act as though this is your only option, your last resort. Coming across as desperate wont help your chances. Also, if Lana doesnt want to go to the school that admitted her, then why did she apply?  Lana comes across as someone who planned her application process poorly. If she did, in fact, plan her application process poorly, fair enough - many students do. However, you shouldnt share this fact with colleges. While Lana is generally polite in her letter, and her spelling/grammar/syntax is all fine, her tone and approach are what make this letter a bad one. If you decide to write a letter of continued interest, make sure to be respectful, honest, and humble.   A Final Word on LOCI Realize that some colleges and universities do not welcome letters of continued interest. Before sending anything to a school, be sure to read both your decision letter and the admissions website carefully to see if the school has said anything about sending additional information. If the school says further correspondence is not welcome, you obviously shouldnt send anything. After all, colleges want to admit students who know how to follow directions.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Utilizing Database Performance Using Column Store Research Paper

Utilizing Database Performance Using Column Store - Research Paper Example This technique of data storage has its benefits but again several questions still exist on the same matter. For instance, how row based systems be able to be customized to achieve performances associated with column stores? This is the kind of question whose answers we seek to discuss in this document. 1. Introduction The paper seeks to show how database performance can be increases using database column storage techniques. The paper will be divided into sections which include a brief description about the database column storage, an explanation on how column store can utilize the performance of databases, how database performance will differ by using column store and not row storage. Additionally, areas where column storage count will also be discussed; these are areas of application of the technique will also be discussed. Finally, recommendations on the enhancements of column stores will come at the end of the paper. 2. Database Column Storage Column store database systems can be traced to the 1970’s; this was the first time when transposed files were being studied; Then followed the investigations into the vertical partitioning technique of clustering table attributes on a database. The mid 80’s witnessed the experience of the advantages of decomposed model of storage (DSM). This was the predecessor to column storage technique. It was considered better than the old row based system of storage. Nonetheless, row based database systems still went on to maintain dominance of the markets as a result of market needs, as well as non-favorable trends in technology to implement the column based systems of storage. This was despite the fact that the DSM technique was very suitable and had potential for better analytical queries. However, the 2000s had good tidings for research on column storage systems. Commercial systems of the same took off instantly. In this paper, we look at the technology and the application trends which have led to the renaissance of commercialization of the column stores. In comparison to the row-oriented stores of data, the column oriented, database systems were read optimized; this means that the when a query is sent, access is granted to the required fields only, and a reduction in disk input output processes and time is registered. student_Id Firstname Lastname Grade 1 James Smith A 2 Cathy Jones A- 3 Elizabeth Queen C Table 1: Sample Database Table In a computer, the database information has to be converted and bytes for storage in the hard drive or to be written onto the RAM. For row-based storages, the data in the database is serialized according to the values in each of the rows; then follows the data in the next row. The data is arranged as follows, in the row based model: 1, James, Smith, A; 2, Cathy, Jones, A-; 3, Elizabeth, Queen, C; On the other hand, the column based storage system would arrange the data in the following format for storage: 1, 2, 3; James, Cathy, Elizabeth; Smith, Jones, Queen ; A, A-, C; Research on column stores indicates that, with compression, row-stores perform less effectively than column oriented systems. More formally, column storage systems store their data tables in the form of columns of data unlike the row based systems which store data in the form of rows of data; as seen in most relational

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Environmental Science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Environmental Science - Essay Example 1. The first step is identifying that there is no water supply. The next step is to see the possible causes – leakage/block in pipeline connected to this faucet; damage/clog in the main pipeline supplying water to the house; check for reports in press and media about possible maintenance work by water supply department or break down in power supply, contamination at the source of water supply, higher incidence of water borne diseases being reported. The hypothesis can be physically verified. 2. Principle of Repeatability: Water samples can be collected from a variety of households and tested for the presence of pathogens, their population levels and toxicity. If similar results emerge from a majority of the water samples collected and analysed for the same parameters then the hypothesis may be accepted. 3. A self-centred, consumerist, ‘what’s in it for me’ attitude person, would not want to, or, even be able to understand environmental issues and concerns. The decision to exploit or use a natural resource, not just trees, must definitely, be based on a detailed risk analysis and must also take into consideration the views of the people who are directly dependent and benefit from the resource. 2. Temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity & suspended sediments, specific conductivity, hardness. Testing water quality for these parameters gives a general indication of the commercial activities prevalent in the area and is a good indicator of the environmental health of the region. 3. The process of converting atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia is called nitrogen fixation. The fixed nitrogen is then used by plants to convert them into amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids etc. Animals use these to build proteins and other molecules 4. The primary producers and top consumers have not changed. The difference now though, is the unbalanced structure of the food chain and food web