Saturday, August 31, 2019

The Nature of Evil in William Shakespeare’s Hamlet

Society has been preoccupied by the concept of good and evil since the emergence of civilization and, just as humankind has evolved over time, so has the definition of evil. Evil was first used to describe someone who placed themselves above others and it wasn't until the Old and Middle English period that evil became associated with wrong-doing. As time passed, the definition continued to become increasingly more specific until it reached its modern day definition: â€Å"extreme moral wickedness. (www. etymonline. com/index. php? term=evil) However, what one ultimately defines as evil depends on one's personal experiences, frame of reference, and culture. For instance, during World War II, the Americans believed that dropping an atomic bomb on Hiroshima was an act of good as it ended conflict with the Japanese. On the other hand, the Japanese viewed it as an act of evil as the bombings resulted in the deaths of thousands of people.This proves that good and evil cannot always be see n as simply black or white, but also as shades of grey making it difficult to label characters in various literary works, especially those of William Shakespeare. The ambiguity of evil in William Shakespeare's Hamlet forces spectators to interpret each character's thoughts, actions, and personality in order to place them properly on the gradient of evil. Regardless of one's personal idea of evil, Claudius can be seen as a villain from many standpoints.He constantly performs actions with malicious intent and expresses true love only for himself. The first and most important act that Claudius commits is the murder of his own brother, which he does to obtain the crown of Denmark, as described by King Hamlet's ghost: Now, Hamlet, hear. ‘Tis given out that, sleeping in my orchard, A serpent stung me – so the whole ear of Denmark Is by a forged process of my death Rankly abus'd – but know, thou noble youth, The serpent that did sting thy father's life Now wears his cro wn. (I. v. 34-40)The ghost's speech shows the true nature of Claudius' evil as he allows himself to kill his own brother. However, this is not to say that Claudius does not understand the nature of his sins. Following ‘The Murder of Gonzago', a test of his conscience set up by Hamlet, Claudius feels overwhelmed with guilt and self disgust; he attempts to repent for his sins and expresses that he realizes the magnitude of what he has done: O, my offence is rank, it smells to heaven; It hath the primal eldest curse upon't– A brother's murder. (III. iii. 37-39)This is the first and only time that the readers or spectators see Claudius acting as a normal human being and showing or recognizing his emotions. This is very important as many people believe that repentance leads to mercy. However, Claudius finds himself unable to properly do so as he comes to realize that he does not feel remorse for what he has done since he continues to reap the rewards of his deed: Pray can I not, Though inclination be as sharp as will, My stronger guilt defeats my strong intent†¦ My fault is past – but O, what form of prayerCan serve my turn? ‘Forgive me my foul murder? ‘ That cannot be, since I am still possess'd Of those effects for which I did the murder– My crown, mine own ambition, and my queen. †¦ My words fly up, my thoughts remain below. Words without thoughts never to heaven go. (III. iii. 36-40, 51-55, 97-98) If Claudius had successfully repented for his sins, he would no longer be labelled as an evil character. He is, however, unable to do so. Despite Claudius' callousness, the fact that he even attempts to repent is honourable.However, by continuing to manipulate, destroy, and murder he voids any chance of forgiveness. He uses his â€Å"son† as a scapegoat by focusing all of the negative attention on him and thus avoids negative attention himself, marries his brother's widow, turns Hamlet's childhood friends against him, and ultimately causes the deaths of all the main characters in the play. He uses his charm and political power to unleash increasing amounts of chaos proving that, â€Å"One may smile, and smile, and be a villain! † (I. v. 07) In the end, it is Claudius who is responsible for trapping otherwise innocent characters in a chain of deception, deceit, and destruction which is escapable only by death. Hamlet is the primary victim of Claudius' malevolent deeds, causing a dramatic shift in his nature. He becomes a slave to misfortune and feels the need to right the wrongs in his life, specifically the murder of his father. Upon hearing the truth about the nature of his father's death, Hamlet becomes a vital part in the cyclical pattern of evil as he vows to take revenge on his uncle, Claudius: Haste me to know't, that I with wings as swiftAs meditation or the thoughts of love May sweep me to my revenge. (I. v. 29-31) Although Hamlet is â€Å"a victim† of Claudius' deeds, the reader is unable to sustain any feeling of heightened pathos once he seeks justice by exacting revenge. However, one must take into consideration the common thought processes of the time. It wasn't until recently that society began to view retributive justice as unacceptable and morally wrong. Therefore, Hamlet would have been justified in his attempts to get revenge for his father's murder.In addition, getting revenge gives Hamlet no personal gain except the redemption of his father's name, while Claudius kills with power in mind. Furthermore, Claudius is responsible for the death of an innocent while Hamlet is only concerned with killing those who are guilty, particularly his uncle. Hamlet even takes precautions, such as arranging the performance of ‘The Murder of Gonzago', to prove his suspicions and keep a clean conscience: I'll have groundsMore relative than this—the play's the thingWherein I'll catch the conscience of the King. II. ii. 603-605) By trying to f igure out whether or not Claudius is guilty, Hamlet shows that he is trying to cause the least damage possible and does not want to kill those who do not deserve it. A truly evil person would not care whether or not their victim was innocent, as is the case with Claudius. Unfortunately, Hamlet becomes tangled up in his thoughts and emotions and causes more problems than he intends to; primarly when Hamlet and his mother are talking and Hamlet attacks Polonius who is hiding behind an arras.The attack kills Polonius, who Hamlet initially thought was Claudius. While some may consider this to be evil, Hamlet recognizes the event as a tragic accident: A bloody deed. Almost as bad, good mother, As kill a king and marry with his brother†¦ Thou wretched, rash intruding fool, farewell. I took thee for thy better. Take thy fortune. (III. iv. 28-29, 31-32) By comparing the murder of Polonius to the murder of his father, Hamlet acknowledges that what he has done is wrong but unfortunately this does not allow him to escape the repercussions which follow.Killing Polonius is the biggest mistake that Hamlet makes in the play, turning Laertes against him and leading to the death of both himself and Ophelia. Although Hamlet can be seen as unnaturally cruel many times throughout the play, he is not evil. Hamlet is simply trying to play the cards he has been dealt in life. Throughout Hamlet, Laertes is described as a very loyal and noble gentleman. Unfortunately for Laertes, he suffers the same fate as poor Hamlet. He loses his father and his sister, just as Hamlet loses his father and mother.Following his father's death, Laertes feels the need to kill to uphold his family's name. At first Laertes believes the murderer to be Claudius but when Claudius convinces him otherwise, Laertes shifts his attention towards Hamlet. In order to get Laertes to do this, Claudius manipulates him into thinking that Hamlet is the root of all evil and must be taken care of. Laertes agrees to d o so and even contributes his own ideas: I will do't. And for that purpose, I'll anoint my sword. I bought an unction of mountebank So mortal but dip a knife in it, Where it draws blood, no cataplasm so rare,Collected from all simples that have virtue Under the moon, can save the thing from death That is but scratch'd withal. I'll touch my point With this contagion, that if I gall him slightly, It may be death. (IV. vii. 139-148) Similarly to Hamlet, it is not evil that gets the best of Laertes, but his emotions. His anger and sadness cause him to react drastically and he makes decisions at a time where he is unable to think straight. Laertes later comes to realize this as he reflects upon his plan to kill Hamlet: And yet it is almost against my conscience. V. ii. 288) At this point in the play, it becomes evident that Laertes' â€Å"evil† is not of his own creation but of Claudius'. It is not only Laertes who realizes this but Hamlet as well, allowing the men to see the simi larities in their situations and apologize to one another: He is just serv'd. It is a poison temper'd by himself. Exchange forgiveness with me, noble Hamlet. Mine and my father's death come not upon thee, Nor thine on me. (V. ii. 321-325) Unlike Claudius, the men are forgiven for their sins and are able to die as heroes rather than villains.This final act of nobility is what truly defines the characters of Hamlet and Laertes, not their mishaps. William Shakespeare's Hamlet exemplifies how it is not what a character does but who a character is that determines whether they are truly evil or not. Nevertheless, that is not to say that the character's do not fall victim to temptation or evil. It is the way that they handle themselves once they have done so that allows spectators an insight into their true nature. As Hamlet says, â€Å"There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking it makes it so. † (II. ii. 245-246)

Friday, August 30, 2019

Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller Essay

The play, Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller is a tragedy. It is about an American family who live their lives masking their reality, which is filled with tension and instability, with the American dream lifestyle. The father of the household, William Loman, is the driving force behind fantasizing these illusions. Hence, in the play, we are faced with many incidences where false perceptions occur and fall apart in the face of reality. We see evidence of this unmasked false perception in the situation where many, despite his ongoing boasting of being ‘well liked’, laughed at William. Although he made it seem as if he was of major importance in his workplace, the reality was that he was indispensable. Willy was found to be an adulterer dissolving any fantasy of a stable family. Bill Oliver, Willy’s son Biffs’, past employer could not even recognize Biff, after creating the figment that he was well favoured by him. Finally, preceding his death, Willy prided himself on all the people who would show up to his funeral, however, no one but his immediate family and friends attended. At the start of the play, William comes home exhausted from his job. He confides in his wife, Linda that he no longer feels to take long trips as he usually drives from New York to Boston. To enhance his quality of life and to resolve the problem of his exhaustion, he decides that he would request jobs that require him to stay in New York. He believes that this option can be easily made available to him as he thinks he is a valuable asset to the business and that it owes a great deal to him.† I’ll come home with an advance and a New York job.† He tells Linda this with assurance, right before he goes to see his boss. On the other hand however, a different picture is painted when he goes to his boss, Howard, to make the request. He is denied his wishes. Willy even tries to negotiate lower wages with Howard in attempts to persuade him to conform to his desires but he turns his back on this plea as well. Howard goes on to further humiliate Willy as he fires him from th e job entirely. Howard tells Willy: ‘I don’t want you to represent us I’ve been meaning to tell you this for a long time.’ The wall of false adoration shatters as Howard uncovers how useless Willy really is to the running of the business. In the play, William emphasizes, in many instances, that he is ‘well-liked’ and that he is one of a kind even though this is not the case. He goes to his grave telling the tale that people from all around  love and admire him. He drills this notion so far that he believes it himself. ‘I am not a dime a dozen! I am Willy Loman and you are Biff Loman.’ He even nurtures these thoughts into the minds of his children. ‘And they know me, boys, they know me up and down New England. The finest people. And when I bring you fellas up, there’ll be open sesame for all of us, ‘cause one thing, boys: I have friends. I can park my car in any street in New England, and the cops protect it like their own.’ However, Willy’s son Biff reveals to us that in reality, people in the business world hold no respect for him and look onto him as a joke and laugh at him. ‘ They’ve laughed at dad for years and you know why? Because we don’t belong in this nuthouse of a city.’ In this situation we see where the false perception of Willy being well liked falls apart in the realistic world his son tries to live in where he can share the truth; that he is laughed at. At the core of the American dream is the ideal, stable family unit; Willy has failed in his attempts to achieve this. He has a supportive wife and thinks he has the perfect sons as he covers up their faults and does not correct their wrongs, but instead makes excuses for them. However, we see that the family is in fact unstable as he is adulterous to his wife. Despite his attempts to conceal his relations with this mistress to portray a loving father and husband, Biff finds his father in a hotel in Boston with her, when he goes to look for Willy after finding out that he has flunked Mathematics. This in turn deteriorates the once close-knit relationship that Biff and Willy had. Biff tells Linda, â€Å"he threw me out of this house remember?† Linda says, â€Å"Why did he do that I never knew why?† And Biff replies, â€Å"because I know he’s a fake and he doesn’t like anybody around who knows.† The false perception of an ideal family falls apart when Biff discovers the truth about his father. In an attempt to turn a new leaf and make something of himself, Biff decides on a plan of action. He would go to his past employer, Bill Oliver, and ask for a loan to serve as start up capital for a partnership he would start with his brother Happy, in a sports clothing company. His motive for believing he would be funded is that he recalls Bill Oliver showing favour to him and promising him anything he needed. ‘When I quit he said to me, he  put his arm on my shoulder and he said, >> Biff, if you ever need anything, come to me  him anything he needed. Biff found out that Willy was an adulterous husband eliminating any possibility of having a stable family like they would have thought in the past. Finally, only Willy’s immediate family and friends attended Willy’s funeral although he spoke of many people attending and of him being so well liked by many.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Business and Professional munication Skills

The updated textbook written by Beebe & Mottet addresses the skills of the business and professional munication as the core concept. It emphasise on the global leadership in today’s global workplace. This is an important source as it does not bind the munication methods in limits. It explains the five fundamental principles of munication that provides a great framework of teachings. The authors has explained these principles by applying them on various professional and business contexts like interview, teams and groups, workplace relationship and presentations. The drawback of the book is that it focuses mainly on the global level example, where as some small scale organisation’s examples would have very useful to understand different scenarios. This reference is a great choice as a resource because it answers a number of questions that need to be answered in my report. It explains the importance of bringing in the new technology in an organisation. The best part is it takes in focus the national as well as global level petitiveness that an organisation has to face and how a new technology can help in gaining in the petition is explained thoroughly. It also explains the implementation and training support that is required for introducing the technology. The drawback of this article is that it is a general article on the introduction of the technology in the organisation and thus does not focus on the technology selected for the organisation. This newspaper article is important because it explains that in today’s scenario of business how important CRM is. It explains five most important C’s for a successful start-up business and that includes the CRM. It says that it doesn’t matter what is the size of the pany CRM is an important factor that should always be present in the pany. This article helps in giving weight to justification of using this technology in the organisation. Though, this article is related to other C’s also. So, basically very less information is being given on our topic but, whatever is given is useful for the report. The report that needs to be written is to convince the management to introduce the new technology that is CRM in the organisation, and this article hammer the last nail to it. This article explains how CRM software can change leads into great opportunities. It emphasise on the use of CRM and how beneficial it will be for an organisation. This article explains the process to use CRM for the pany’s benefits. The article is very well-written but, lacks practicality. Some options are not very practical for all the organisations to use. This journal article is the one that explains about the new technology that needs to be introduced in the organisation. This article covers all the points required to write a report about the new technology and the questions related to it. This article focuses on explaining about the CRM software, how it will be beneficial for the pany, what are the limitation of the software, the budgeting required for it, and the other information required is also there in the article. The article has a good approach towards the subject, but it was written in 2010, some its content may have get old and therefore, not very useful. This article revolves around the procedure to find the best CRM software for an organisation. It is helpful to know what type of software will be helpful and beneficial for the pany. There are various CRM software in the market and every software has its own speciality. It b es difficult for a pany management to decide which CRM software is best suited with the pany’s requirements here this article helps and provide steps to find the best CRM software. Article is very helpful, but it is too long and bit difficult to understand the steps given to select the CRM. Many statements clashes with each other that confuse the person reading it. Problem- the pany wants to increase its clientele by working on to increase more online orders. Background of the problem - the pany has website that take online orders but it is not satisfied with the number of orders it is getting so the management has decided to add a new technology to reach the potential customers. Gathering of information - the information will be gathered with the help internet. Using correct keywords like ‘CRM Software’, ‘Options of CRM software’, ‘New technologies available for organisations’, ‘How to gain more online customers.’ From all the sources available the best and most informative sources will be used to shortlist the information required to write the report. Ahmad, S. (2014). Technology in Organizations.  International Journal Of Research In Business Management,  2(7). Beebe, S., & Mottet, T. (2013).  Business & Professional munication: Principles and Skills for Leadership  (2nd ed.). San Marcos: Pearson. Kubi, B., & Doku, A. (2010). Towards a successful customer relationship management: A conceptual framework.  African Journal Of Marketing Management,  2(3), 037-043. Retrieved from Leary, B. (2015).  Determining the best CRM software for your organization.  SearchCRM. Retrieved 23 March 2017, from searchcrm.techtarget Mahalingam, T. (2016).  Startups expect five Cs from firms: coaching, customer relationship, capital, connects and cofounders, says Ravi Gururaj.  The Economic Times. Retrieved 23 March 2017, from economictimes.indiatimes Nadeau, A. (2015).  Lead Management: 5 Ways CRM Software Converts Leads Into Opportunities.Thevarguy . Retrieved 23 March 2017, from thevarguy

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Urban Sociology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Urban Sociology - Essay Example n Factor: Is Afghanistan Next in Line for an Ethnic Civil War?’; the religious implications of the Iraq war will be thoroughly examined and discussed. Since the September 2001 terrorist attack, the United States had been very active in extending its support by sending some of its troops and its allies to Iraq. Aiming to provide justice to American individuals who had lost their lives during the terrorist attack, President Bush declared the launching of a campaign against terrorism. In reality, Bush’s statement and strong declaration to go against the terrorism was not only focused on political and social dimension of the case scenario. It also suggests a long-term war between Christianity against the Arab and Islamic world. (Fawzy, 2003) When President Bush made his statement to go into war with the Iraqi people, he has violated the real concept of Christianity in the sense that we should spread love and peace around us – not war. The only people who can be considered a victim of the situation are the U.S. solidiers who were sent to Iraq with the risk of losing their lives and fight against individuals who were merely protecting themselves from being attacked by the U.S. troop members. Eventhough the war in Iraq was not literally known to be a war between two religious sectors, it remains a fact that there is a strong political and religious aspect behind the war in Iraq. One political reason why U.S. is very much determined to attack Iraq is the fact that the country is rich in natural resources especially with oil which is very important to the U.S. future economic growth. (Escobar, 2007) On the other hand, war in Iraq is also considered a religious civil war. Since Islam is widely used as a transnational faith which unites its community (Toft, 2008), attacking the Islamic religion could weaken the unity of its community which could easily make the U.S. and its allies take over Iraq. The oil reserve of Iraq is second biggest in the world.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Ethical analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Ethical analysis - Essay Example Even though practitioners are expected to keep the confidentiality of patient information, Richard’s case demonstrates a need to disclose the test results to his spouse. It is argued that, medical situations in which more harm would result from keeping patient information private justify breaching of the obligation of confidentiality (Cornock 18). Richard who has been away in Botswana for four moths contracted HIV and it is necessary that his wife knows the status of her husband so that she would be protected from contracting the virus. For this reason, I would contact the wife and disclose the results. However, the disclosure of Richard’s condition to his wife has to be done in the most appropriate and professional manner. This means that I will first try to counsel the husband as to why the wife needs to be informed about his condition. To protect the health of others from cross transmission of infections, practitioners are obliged to provide relevant information to the parties who are at risk of contacting a disease or infection (Kipnis 7). The decision to inform the wife is reached for the sake of her health. The wife would be informed in two ways. I would persuade the husband to inform the wife by himself and subscribe counseling sessions for the couple. It is possible that Richard could refuse this because he seems adamant to keep this information private. Therefore, I will contact the wife and arrange for a consultation and counseling session with her. During the meeting with Richard’s wife, I would inform her about the health condition of the husband in the most straightforward manner. This will be followed by a counseling session in which I will advice her that she and the husband would live positively regardless of his positive HIV status. My duty of care is towards the whole family. If the wife is informed about her husband’s condition, she would take measures of protecting herself from being infected by her husband. In this case, I

Monday, August 26, 2019

Role of IT Managers in Organizations Term Paper

Role of IT Managers in Organizations - Term Paper Example In most institutions including Magnum Enterprises, tasks placed under IT departments are usually structured into IT projects. IT managers are, therefore, sometimes known as IT project managers, since they undertake project-driven exercises. Whether the objective is to install, design or reengineer, Information Technology projects are always to a large extent propelled by aggressive deadlines and durations of regular change. To achieve their objectives, IT managers must identify resources and allocate them. Similarly, they must ensure that activities are organized in consonance with business and technical needs. Projects that IT managers work on always come in various forms. They range from feasibility studies, design projects, development projects, to implementation and upgrade projects (Anderson, Gottschalk & Karlsen, 2002).  Mintzberg (1970) introduced the concept of management roles. Later, Jeong Kettinger and Lee pointed out the relevance of six roles from Mintzberg’s ro le topology. These are: leader, monitor, liaison, spokesman, and entrepreneur and resource allocator. The job of any manager consists of many roles and responsibilities at the same time. At some point, a manager may perceive some roles more important than others, depending on urgency and impact (Anderson, Gottschalk).  As a leader, a manager must supervise the ongoing activities under his jurisdiction, hire and train staff members on a regular basis, organize and coordinate all the activities under his/her docket.

Immigration and Diversity Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Immigration and Diversity - Research Paper Example This paper discusses the migration of the Japanese into the state of Texas and where they settled. The Japanese migrated into Texas for various reasons. Some of them moved from Japan to settle in Texas as a result of overpopulation and congestion in the country1. The movement of some of the Japanese was by choice like, for instance, the movement of businessmen to Texas to exploit business opportunities in Texas. However, the migration of some of the Japanese was forced such as the forceful relocation of prisoners. Overpopulation caused a group of Japanese led by Sadatsuchi Uchida to tour the Gulf Coast eyeing the possibility of relocation to the area. The group was successful and thus migrated to the area and set up rise farms2. The success encouraged the movement of more Japanese to the location. Hostility drove Japanese from the West Coast to settle in Hidalgo and Cameron counties in lower Rio Grande Valley. Some of the Japanese settled in Bexar and El Paso countries. The migration of the Japanese was not particularly a drastic process. They moved into Texas in small groups and finally settled in the area to carry on their business activities. Today, the Japanese live peacefully in Texas and have become citizens by naturalization. Their massive contribution has led to the tremendous growth of the state of

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Security and Privacy Controls for Federal Information Systems Essay

Security and Privacy Controls for Federal Information Systems - Essay Example Implementation of Access control Internal Revenue Service (IRS) developed a documented access control policy that addressed the purpose, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance with all rules and regulations. We also developed and documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the access control policy and associated access controls including risk management. These procedures and rules will be reviewed and updated at a specified period of time. Account management is a control within the Access control family. It is denoted by identifier AC-2: This control enables the organization to manage information systems accounts including identifying account types, establishing conditions or membership, identifying authorized users of the information system and specifying user privileges. The organization manages information system accounts, including: Identifying account types (examples: individual, group, system, application, guest and temporary); Establishing conditions for group membership; Identifying authorized users of the information system and specifying access privileges; Requiring appropriate approvals for requests to establish accounts; Establishing, activating, modifying, disabling, and removing accounts;

Saturday, August 24, 2019

My hero in life Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

My hero in life - Essay Example k up to and it is she who has taught me and my siblings that nothing is impossible in life if one is dedicated enough and is willing to work really hard to get what one wants in life. It is my mother who taught to us the value of hard work and dedication in life. I am proud to say that my mother instilled in me and my brothers and sisters some important values and ethics that act as a guiding star in our lives, whenever we feel that we are in the need of some direction and motivation. I consider myself indeed very lucky ad privileged to acknowledge that I got a mother of that stature and character. My mother’s name is Amena and she is 49 years old. My grandparents did tell me that right from her childhood she was an exceptional child who was always fond of learning new things. In a social context, my mother also happened to be a really bonding person who liked interacting with people and making new friends. She strongly believed that one should work hard and must do one’s best to serve the community in which one is born. She was very much admired by her friends and relatives who considered her to be an intelligent and loving person and took her to be an admirable personality. My mother was born and raised in Saudi Arabia in Al Taif. As per my grandparents she happened to be a very devoted, obedient and sincere child who was fond of studies and learning. She happened to be a really sweet person who took great pains to serve her parents and siblings. She was deeply admired by everybody in the family right from the time she was a small child. As per my grandmother, my mother had a passion for learning new things and she wanted to be somebody in life. At the same time it was her firm faith that one should not be selfish in one’s pursuits. One should also work hard to give back to the community in which one is born. In other words she happened to be a very social person who believed in contributing to the community and the society into which she was born. As per

Friday, August 23, 2019

Deal Directly With The Issue Of Death Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Deal Directly With The Issue Of Death - Essay Example Whereas in Seneca’s ‘on shortness of life’, he explains the life is not short as people think if it is used in the right manner. Nature has given enough time to human being to accomplish what they want. He sees natural phenomena as the metaphor for life. So death is a natural process to him, which has to be dealt with courage and willingness. According to him, human spirit should adapt to the natural law of death. He claims that human beings are bad soldiers who do not follow the commands of God. This is very true as it can be seen widely that human beings have always acted opposite to God’s commands and rules. It is natural for beings that are once born to die and accepting it is the wisdom in real man. In the same manner, Socrates also suggests that man should neither fear in life nor in death. From his thinking, we can understand the greatness of him. The first and worst fear of a human being is dead and one who advocates fearlessness to death indeed is a genius. A man who is spiritually educated will never have the concern in dying as he knows it is a hard truth. He will respect and obey the law of nature and enjoy both life and death equally. This is because he knows that soul is immortal and nothing can kill it or destroy it. In the apology, Socrates gives his genuine perspective on death to people. Socrates reveals that souls are immortal and live forever. It is a fact that soul existed along with God and has been given physical form to be tested by him.... In regard to his death penalty, Socrates responded that his physical body can only perish but not his eternal soul. This is the true nature of human soul and death is just a phase in its journey. Socrates claims that feelings arise from knowledge and since he has no knowledge about death he is not afraid of it. He believes that death is a kind of blessing. This is because; death can give opportunity to a person to go to world he has not been before. There he is able to meet his ancestors and can test them and be in touch with them. This is true as nobody have any idea of where we will go after death and it would be a new experience for human beings to die and know the truth. So in such a case, one should look forward to death which is going to be an exciting experience. Seneca believes that the fear of death is the underlying philosophical root of most other human fears. Seneca like Socrates also believed in the immortal nature of soul. In â€Å"shortness of life† Seneca menti ons that one should think about life rather than death and analyze what is important in life. One should find right attitude to time, and to value and allocate time in the right way. This is very right way of seeing life as people should utilize their time in doing good and being good. In 'Consolation to Helvia', Seneca consoles his mother by saying that material comforts are not the end of life. He explains about the relationship of Man with God and position of a person in the universe. It is true that once we understand our relationship with God we would not be afraid of death. One should understand the working of the natural world to eradicate the fear in the mind about death. Also Socrates in his apology mentions that he has no feeling or emotions about death. He explains that it is not

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Indian & European Relations in the 1600s Essay Example for Free

Indian European Relations in the 1600s Essay Spain in North America 1560s: Spanish give up search for Indian gold. Focus on defending their empire from English (who were plundering treasure ships and Caribbean ports) and French Protestants (who began to settle in Florida though the Spanish had already claimed the land). Spanish establish fort at St. Augustine, Florida (1565) to protect route of the treasure fleet. They also massacre French Protestants. Raids by Native Americans wipe out military outposts and religious missions. 1573: The Comprehensive Order for New Discoveries says that missionaries, not conquistadors, have to pacify the land. Franciscan friars set up missions in Nuevo Mà ©xico (New Mexico) and attack Native Americans. Native Americans do forced labor. 1680: Popà © leads revolt, kills 400 Spaniards and forces remaining 1500 to flee to El Paso, and destroys Spanish missions (Pueblo Revolt of 1680). Spaniards return, Native Americans make a deal that lets them practice their own religion and end forced labor, but they have to help the Spaniards. Outcome: Spanish fail to convert Native Americans, Santa Fe left vulnerable. In Florida, raids by English leave St. Augustine vulnerable. French in North America 1608: First permanent settlement, Quebec, is founded 1662: King Louis XIV turns New France into a royal colony, tries to get people to move there. Cannot get enough people. New France becomes an area for trading furs. Rise of the Iroquois: French introduce diseases that kill many Indians. Indians get guns from fur trade, which leads to war. The Five Iroquois Nations come out on top, have control of the fur trade in Quebec (with the French) and New Amsterdam (with the Dutch). French Jesuits try to win Indian converts. They do not exploit the Indians, and they come to understand their culture. They eventually win converts by adapting Christianity to the needs of the Indians. Outcome: Despite efforts of the Jesuits, French fur trade causes devastation through disease and loss of Indian culture. Iroquois warriors kill many, though they too are harmed: French burned their villages and killed many warriors in 1666 and again in 1690. Dutch in North America Dutch set up a fur-trading post (Fort Orange) along the Hudson River. West India Company has monopoly on the fur. Later, Dutch founded New Amsterdam and made it the capital of New Netherland. Colony didn’t thrive: small population made it vulnerable. Fort Orange succeeds as a peaceful and successful fur-trading post. Dutch near New Amsterdam are more aggressive towards Indians. 1640: war. After the war, West India Company ignores New Netherland, focuses on slave trade. 1664: Dutch fall under control of the English under the Duke of York 1673: Dutch assault momentarily recaptures the colony Edmund Andros takes control, in retaliation imposes English law and demands allegiance. Outcome: Dutch, who had once been dominant, are now a subject people. Chapter 6: Making War and Republican Governments (1776-1789) Patriots demand that colonists join Loyalist or Patriot side – cannot stay neutral. Patriots have advantage to get supporters b/c they control local governments. Patriots make army, and Patriots encouraged people to support the army by taking a more active role in govt. Character of politics changes when common people exert influence: democratic army launches age of republican revolution. Americans forced to retreat, Britain pushed back Americans into PA. When winter comes, Britain halts their campaign and Patriots catch them off guard, winning small victories. Armies and Strategies Howe doesn’t want to destroy Americans, just wants them to surrender and compromise. Howe cannot win decisive victory, Washington avoids defeat. Washington’s handicaps: Fights only defensively, has unfit recruits, Radical Whig Patriots believe army is threat to liberty. American Victory at Saratoga Britain’s goal: isolate New England North’s colonial secretary Germain’s plan: attack Albany from 3 sides. Burgoyne, St. Leger, and Howe will attack. Howe’s different plan: attack Philadelphia (home of Continental Congress), end rebellion w/ single victory. Howe uses his plan slowly. Continental Congress flees to PA’s interior. Howe’s slow attack directly leads to defeat of Burgoyne’s army. Burgoyne’s actions: fights, then stalls. Americans led by General Gates slows Burgoyne’s progress. Burgoyne’s army stuck in Saratoga, NY. Beaten back while trying to raid VT. Has troops w/drawn to help Howe. Meanwhile, Gates’ forces grow. October 1777: Burgoyne forced to surrender. Turning point of the war. Social and Financial Perils British naval blockade causes disruption in New England fishing industry, and British occupation causes decrease in domestic trade and manufacturing. People move out, decrease in population. Chesapeake colonies: blockade cuts tobacco exports. Short supply of goods = army starts getting supplies from the people. Women and Household Production Women: 1 Increase output of homespuns 2 Participate in farmwork Despite this, goods remain scarce and prices rise. War also created deprivation, displacement, and death. War divides communities b/c of Patriots’ violence. Financial Crisis State govts are weak, don’t create new taxes. Creation of fiat money, Continental Congress and colonies’ economies crumble. Valley Forge Starvation and sickness for Americans during the winter in Valley Forge, but Baron von Steuben raises morale. Continental army becomes tougher and better disciplined. The Path to Victory, 1778-1783 1778: Continental Congress allies w/ France. Alliance gives Continental Congress money, supplies, and later troops. Also confronts Britain w/ international war that challenges domination of Atlantic. The French Alliance Alliance starts w/ secret loan to colonies to avenge France’s loss of Canada to Britain. Later turns into a formal alliance. Negotiating the Treaty American diplomats ensure treaty specifies that French support cannot end until the United States is independent. Alliance revives colonies and Continental Congress. The British Response War is becoming unpopular in Britain. Some British support Americans and campaign for domestic reforms. George III initially committed to crushing rebellion, but after British defeat at Saratoga changes his mind. Tries to prevent American and French alliance (Parliament repeals Tea Act, Prohibitory acts, and renounces right to tax colonies). War in the South French and Spanish (who joined the war against Britain in 1779) agendas cause British to shift focus of the war to the South. Britain’s Southern Strategy British plan: 1 Focus on winning tobacco and rice colonies (VA, Carolinas, GA) then rely on local Loyalists to hold them 2 Exploit racial divisions between slaves and Patriot owners – get slaves to flee At first, British are winning. But tide turns. Dutch join fight against British. France dispatches troops to America Partisan Warfare in the Carolinas General Green fights in Carolinas. Fighting goes back and forth. Britain is weakened by this war of attrition, and British decide to give up Carolinas to Greene and focus on VA instead. Benedict Arnold and Conflicting Loyalties Benedict Arnold switched from American side to British side. Fights for George III in VA. Britain Defeated Washington and the French fleet surround Cornwallis and his troops on land. Cornwallis is outnumbered, cannot escape by sea. October 1781: Cornwallis surrenders in Yorktown The Patriot Advantage Why the Americans won the war: 1 Some British mistakes 2 Widespread Patriots in America 3 Many Americans support war through taxes and joining the militia 4 Patriots led by experienced politicians 5 George Washington Americans refuse to support British army, refuse to accept occupation by Loyalist forces, and endure the inflation caused by the war. Diplomatic Triumph Peace talks begin in 1782, but French and Spanish stall b/c they still hope for major naval victory or territorial conquest. Ignoring Treaty of Alliance, Americans sign a separate peace w/ the British. September 1783: Treaty of Paris. Great Britain recognizes independence of the colonies. Britain gets: 1 Canada 2 Rights for merchants to pursue legal claims for prewar debts 3 Americans will encourage state legislatures to return confiscated property to Loyalists and grant them citizenship America gets: 1 Great Lakes and land east of the Mississippi River 2 Fishing rights 3 Freedom of navigation on the Mississippi 4 British cannot seize property like slaves 1783: Treaty of Versailles – Britain makes peace w/ France and Spain Chapter 10: Creating Republican Institutions, 1776 – 1787 The State Constitutions: How Much Democracy? Many states had written state constitutions when the Continental Congress urged them to in 1776. The Rise of Popular Politics, 1820-1829 Expansion of the franchise = most democratic symbol of the Democratic Revolution. Gives ordinary men more power than anywhere else in the world. The Decline of the Notables and the Rise of Parties American Revolution weakened the deferential society, but didn’t overthrow it. Wealthy notables still dominated the political system at first. 1810: Struggle to expand suffrage began. State legislatures grant broader voting rights to diffuse criticism and deter migration to the west. The new voters refused to support politicians that flaunted their high social status. Democratic politics is corrupt. Martin Van Buren: 1 Created political machine, the Albany Regency. 2 Patronage: gives government jobs to party members in return for their loyalty. (Spoils system) 3 Insists on party discipline, requires elected officials to follow dictates of the party caucus. The Election of 1824 Five candidates, all Republicans, campaigned for presidency. Jackson received most popular votes, but Adams won because Clay made a â€Å"corrupt bargain† with Adams, where Clay would vote Adams into presidency if he would become secretary of state. Presidency of John Quincy Adams: the last notable president Supports American System (protective tariffs, national bank, subsidized internal improvements) Resistance to the American System: southerners oppose protective tariffs because they raised the price of manufactures, and smallholders feared powerful banks that could force them into bankruptcy. Politicians oppose American System on constitutional grounds (for example, saying that the national government’s income couldn’t fund state improvement projects because those projects were the responsibility of the states). Southerners were also angry about the Tariff of 1828, which raised duties on raw materials and textiles. Southerners also dislike Adams’s pro-Indian policy. Jacksonian Impact 1 Expanded potential authority of President by identifying it with the voice of the people. 2 Upheld national authority by threatening use of military force, laying foundation for Lincoln’s later defense of the Union. 3 Reinvigorated Jeffersonian tradition of limited central government by undermining American System of national banking, protective tariffs, and internal improvements. 4 Undermined constitutional jurisprudence of Marshall by appointing Taney as Marshall’s successor. Taney partially reversed nationalist and property-rights decisions of Marshall. Example: In the case Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge Co. (1837), Taney says that a charter doesn’t necessarily bestow a monopoly, and a legislature could charter competition (in this case, a competing bridge co.) to help the public. This decision directly challenges what Marshall said in the Dartmouth College v. Woodward case, where Marshall stresses the binding nature of a contract by saying that a state cannot invalidate a contract. Other cases that place limits on Marshall’s nationalistic interpretations by enhancing role of state governments: Mayor of New York v. Miln (1837): New York state can use â€Å"police power† to inspect health of immigrants. Briscoe v. Bank of Kentucky (1837): When it issues currency, a bank owned by the Kentucky doesn’t violate the provision of the Constitution that prohibits states from issuing â€Å"bills of credit.† As a result of the Taney Court’s decisions, the role of state governments in commerce was greatly enhanced. 5 States write new constitutions that extend democracy, many of which introduce classical liberalism (laissez-faire). Laissez-faire says the government role in the economy should be limited.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Online Shopping Essay Example for Free

Online Shopping Essay It won’t be a wrong thing to say that the present world is a digital world where the world is shrinking day by day on the screen of the Smartphone. People spend a lot more time on internet for fun and work and even now prefer to shop online. But there is a group which prefers to shop from the physical stores. What is your view? Is shopping online a better idea in today’s world? Read more:  Online Shopping Disadvantages Yes:- †¢ It is a boon for working people who hardly find any time from the busy schedule to go out and visit the physical outlets for shopping. †¢ It is just not about buying the luxuries online but now it is a platform where people look to order for groceries and other essential products required in daily life. †¢ There is a great flexibility to compare the prices when you shop online. You can visit the different websites and can then choose the best deal. †¢ There is no time restriction when it comes to shopping online. No matter where you are at the home or in office, you can buy from anywhere and anytime. †¢ When you shop online you can go through the customer reviews to get the idea about the utility and quality of the product. †¢ There is no headache to deal with the sales people who stay after you and pressurize you to buy products in the physical stores. †¢ With the help of online shopping it has becomes easier for the people to buy gifts and flowers and send them to their loved ones on special occasions. No :- †¢ The first problem definitely is of quality. You cannot touch and see the products before you buy them. †¢ Online shopping always comes with the risk of insecure online payment and the fraudulent sites claiming to sell genuine products. †¢ When you buy anything online then there is the compulsion to wait for the products for some days. You cannot get the delivery at the same time. †¢ The greatest headache in online shopping is of return policies. The return policies are not at all buyer’s friendly. Moreover it is a long and complex procedure. †¢ People are getting addicted to internet for their each and every need. If they won’t step out of the home for the simple thing like shopping also then they are at a higher risk of confining themselves to the virtual world. †¢ When you shop online then you have to pay extra as shipping costs. Sometimes the cost of the product is less than the shipping costs. Conclusion:- The coin has two sides head and tail, life has two phases good and bad, everything has its own sets of advantages and disadvantages. The only thing is that be sensible in whatever mode of shopping you use. If you do then online or physical, all are fine.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Feasibility Research Plan for Associated British Foods

Feasibility Research Plan for Associated British Foods Top management of AB Mauri, a business unit of Associated British Foods, is planning to establish bakers yeast and bakery ingredients manufacturing plant in Bangladesh. Before investing in Bangladesh, the company needs a feasibility report. This outline report will introduce the aim and objectives of the main feasibility research. The paper will also define the research strategy including requirement of data, data collection methods and methods of analysing data for achieving the research objectives. The report also includes, how to analyse collected data to achieve the objectives and how to take decisions based on the findings of the research. 1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . After the rebirth of industrial globalisation back in 1980s, Asian, African and Latin American least developed countries became hotspots for relocating labour intensive industries by developed economies. The natural reason was enormous availability of cheap labours in those countries (Bradford 1925). Foreign direct investment in agriculture and the food industry, according to FAO (2004) as cited by Pingali (2010) grew significantly in Latin America and in Asia between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s. In Asia, FDI in the food industry nearly tripled, from $750 million to $2.1 billion during the last three decades and during the same period food industry investment grew exponentially in Latin America, from around $200 million to $3.3 billion (Pingali, 2010). The major Asian investment destinations were China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and India. However, countries like Bangladesh, Vietnam, Nepal and Maldives were ignored by the international investors. Especially B angladesh despite having one of the biggest population bases and cheapest labour forces could not attract FDI in food or other sectors due to political instability, severe power shortage and bureaucratic complexities. Nevertheless, recent development in the Bangladeshi economy has lifted the international confidence and the economy has become wide open for foreign direct investments. The objective of this paper is to outline a research plan to identify the feasibility of establishing a factory of AB Mauri business unit which will produce bakers yeast and bakery ingredients. 2. Aim and Objectives of the Feasibility Research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The aim of the research is to identify whether establishing an AB Mauri plant in Bangladesh for producing bakers yeast and bakery ingredients is a feasible option for Associated British Foods Plc. To reach its aim the research team would require achieving the following objectives Explore current political and economic situation of Bangladesh and identify sustainability of political and economic stability; Investigate the supplies market to determine availability and cost of raw materials, labour and power and compare cost of production with current average cost of AB Mauri plants; Explore the local financial system and determine the impact of interest rate, inflation and exchange rate on future cash flow; Estimate and analyse the financial feasibility of the project considering five, ten and fifteen years of investment duration. 3. Research Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The findings of the research, in sequence of its objectives, should answer the following questions: How stable is political situation in Bangladesh for international businesses? What would be the cost of land, labour, materials and energy in Bangladesh? What government benefits are available for FDIs? What impact the economic variables can put on the business profitability? Is the project financially viable in various investment horizons? By answering all these questions, the research will be able to answer the main research question: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Is it feasible to establish AB Mauris manufacturing plant in Bangladesh?à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? 4. Critical Literature Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The research team would require four areas of knowledge to conduct this research. First of all, the team must have very good idea of agricultural economics. Johnson (n.d.) defined agricultural economics the study of allocation and utilization of resources and commodities by farming. Johnson in his contributory article Encyclopaedia Britannica raised concern about falling agricultural outputs in developing economies and pointed factors like price and income instability, government intervention and some other issues as main constraints of agricultural industry. Pingali and Evenson (2010) in their à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Handbook of Agricultural Economics discussed a wide range of issues including production and supply, agricultural risk management, innovation and research in agri-business, marketing and distribution, storage and price stabilisation of agricultural products and many other issues worthy to be reviewed by the researchers before starting the research work. Secondly, the researchers must have very good understanding of Associated British Foods business philosophy, return expectation, human resource policy and strategic issues. ABFs corporate website and annual reports can be very good source of these information. The company was first established in 1935 and took the name Associated British Food in 1960 and became a public limited corporation 1982. ABFs business is diversified into five segments: sugar, agriculture, retail, grocery and ingredients. The group has at least fifteen companies under its umbrella. AB Mauri, the business unit which this research is concerned about, produces yeast and bakery ingredients and has more than 40 plants in 28 countries. AB Mauris vision is to be the premier bakery solutions business around the world. According to the companys financial statements its average ROE is around 10%. The researchers must know more about companys return expectations, attitude toward risk and other preferences to evaluate the potentiality of doing business in Bangladesh. ABFs corporate website is an excellent information house and almost all information required to conduct this research is available there. Thirdly, the research would require gathering extensive information on Bangladeshi politics, society, economy and agricultural industry. Gathering political information for decision making is very tough. Bangladesh has a long history of political unrest. The countrys politics is led by two major parties Bangladesh Nationalist Party and Awami League. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Bangladesh Business Forecast Reportà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? publishd by Business Monitor International can be used to have a deeper insight of political and economic trends. The report would also provide PESTEL and SWOT analysis of Bangladesh which would very useful information for this research. Publications of countrys central bank named Bangladesh Bank would be very useful to understand the economic paradigm of nation. On the economic data section of the banks website information of exchange, inflation and interest rate, money supply and national income are available. Average exchange rate of Taka against Pound Sterling is around B DT 120 and against dollar is BDT 70. Average interest rate is 5% and average annual inflation rate is around 8% to 10%. More valuable information about the economy is available in the banks website. To gather information on agricultural industry of Bangladesh website of Ministry of Agriculture can be very useful. According to the ministrys website total cultivable land in Bangladeshis is 8.44 million hectare and net cropped area is 7.8 million hectare. Contribution of agricultural sector to GDP is 13.44% and total manpower in agriculture is above 60%. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Handbook of Agricultural Statistics published by agricultural ministry can be a handful source of information to the researchers. Finally, the researchers must have very good idea of research, designing research and research methodology. Marczyk et al. (2005) termed research as cornerstone of scientific process which has the purpose to answer questions and acquire knowledge. According the authors of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Essential of Research Design and Methodologyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?, researches are used for describing, explaining, and predicting. Research can be of various types descriptive or analytical, applied or fundamental, quantitative or qualitative and conceptual or empirical. Descriptive researches gather and present data to portray something that exists. On the other hand, analytical research collect and analyse data critically evaluate situation. Applied research tries to find out a solution for a specific problem and fundamental research builds up generalized theories. Quantitative analysis works with numeric data and qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon. The feasibility research so far is a mixture of descriptive, analytical and quantitative research. The researchers should also have capacity of evaluating financial information to determine financial viability of projects. 5. Research Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Like all other researches, the feasibility research would collect data from various sources and apply methods to convert data to information that answers the research questions. The overall research strategy can be summarised as following: Research Objectives Relevant Data Requirement Data Type and Probable Sources Research Method and Specific Techniques 1. Explore current political and economic situation in Bangladesh and identify sustainability of political economic stability Major political parties their philosophy; Political future; Interest rate, inflation rate, exchange rate etc. Secondary; Bangladesh Business Forecast Report published by Business Monitor International; Publications of Bangladesh Bank Descriptive- Qualitative analysis on political data; Trend/Time Series Analysis on economic variables 2. Investigate the supplies market to determine availability and cost of raw materials, labour and power compare cost of production with current average cost of AB Mauri plants Land area, productivity, labour availability and cost, materials availability and cost, power availability and cost; Average Cost of AB Mauri Plants Worldwide Secondary; Handbook of Agricultural Statistics and Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics Publications; AB Mauris costing reports Descriptive and Quantitative Analysis (Need to identify cost trend and future availability of land, labour and power; Comparison of new data and average cost 3. Explore the local financial system and determine the impact of interest rate, inflation and exchange rate on future cash flow Banking system, financial management practices and findings of data analysis for 1st objective; Secondary; Publications of Bangladesh Bank and Analysis of this research Descriptive Quantitative 4. Estimate and analyse the financial feasibility of the project considering five, ten and fifteen years of investment duration Financial projects based on information gathered and analysed in previous sections Secondary, findings of this research Quantitative- Financial Feasibility Analysis Table 1: Research Strategy 6. Research Data, Methodologies, Techniques and Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table-1 shows that the research will pursue varieties of methods to achieve different objectives. In following sections a brief explanation of research methodologies are given. (a) Describing Political-Economic Scenario and Estimating Sustainability First part of the analysis would be descriptive in nature. Data on political and economical information would be collected from secondary source and presented in meaningful way so that the overall scenarios can be analysed qualitatively. Also data collected on economic information would be placed in a statistical model to estimate future economic trend and sustainability of economic well being of the country. (b) Estimating Supply Cost and Availability The research would require knowing the cost of producing bakery yeast and ingredients in Bangladesh. To get information on cost of supplies data can either be collected form primary or secondary source. Labour market information can also be found from secondary sources stated above. The research methodology to achieve this objective would be partly descriptive and partly quantitative. Descriptive section would identify average cost of supplies and current market availability. The quantitative section will predict the trend in cost and compare it with average cost of other AB Mauri factories. (c) Measuring Impact of Economic Variables on AB Mauris Predicted Cash Flow The economic variables that might influence the estimated manufacturing cost in Bangladeshi plant are exchange rate, inflation rate and probably the interest rate. This part of the research, would require information collected and analysed on economic variables and cost of supplies. First section would be descriptive on the banking and financial system of Bangladesh. Second section of this part would be completely quantitative: associating the findings of future economic trend and predicted cost estimates. (d) Estimate the Financial Feasibility of the New Project The final section of the study would determine the estimated production volume, cost and expected price. The estimated financial information then would be used to calculate projects Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return and Project Payback Period. The research methodology would be quantitative and would require complex financial analysis. (e) Formulating Decision: Accepting or Rejecting FDI in Bangladesh After conducting all required analysis, the would finally formulate a decision about the feasibility of establishing an AB Mauri plant in Bangladesh using the following decision tool Researched Area Research Finding Points Political Stability Stable/Not Stable 2/0 Economic Stability Stable/Not Stable 3/0 Agricultural Industry Condition Favorable/Unfavorable 5/0 Supply Cost Below Average/Average/Above Average 5/0/-5 Impact of Economic Variable on Supply Cost Favourable/Unfavourable 5/0 Financial Feasibility (IRR) Negative/Less than 10%/More Than 10% -10/0/10 Total Score Range -15 to 30 A negative score would automatically reject the investment meaning that establishing an AB Mauri plant in Bangladeshis is not a feasible option. A score between 0 and 10 would mean the investment is considerable. Finally, score above 10 would mean establishing manufacturing plant in Bangladesh is highly feasible. 7. Research Benefits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The research project would benefit ABF on few specific areas. The first benefit is to the ABFs strategic management as the company would be aware about the feasibility of investing in agriculture of Bangladesh. The research report can also benefit ABF if it is planning for investing in other sector in Bangladesh. Finally, the research project model can be used for feasibility analysis for other projects even in other countries. 8. Ethical Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The research is not of experimental nature. Because of being an initial feasibility research it will collect questionnaire based data. All data will be acquired from secondary sources. Therefore it seems that there are no ethical issues involved with this research project. 9. Research Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The research is however limited in few areas. These limitations are summarised as below The research is using only secondary data; data would be collected from various sources that might be limited in quality; The research puts more weight on cost and financial feasibility information rather than political and social issues; For decision making, the research will weight the findings of financial viability analysis which is subject to risk; No techniques of risk management would be applied in predicting, forecasting and evaluating information gathered for this project.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Predict the Impact on Organisation and Consumers of Government Policy :: Economics

Predict the Impact on Organisation and Consumers of Government Policy on Industry The government's industrial policies seek to have an impact on organisations and consumers. The government has a wide range of policies effecting three areas: - Monopoly - Privatisation - Location of industry Monopoly and Restrictive Practices Monopoly power may lead to consumers being exploited for example, prices charged above the true marginal cost of supply - leading to excess profits being made by suppliers in the market. Monopoly power can also lead to lower quality output of goods as the protected position of monopolist means that there will be a lack of incentive to improve goods. Because of the potential economic welfare loss arising from the exploitation of monopoly power, the Government regulates some monopolies. Regulators can control annual price increases and introduce fresh competition into particular industries. In terms of regulation of monopoly the government attempts to prevent operations that are against the public interest - so called anti-competitive practices. Problems occur when the market structure in a given industry becomes monopolistic e.g. if a merger or a take-over causes a firm to supply more than 25% of the market output (defined as a working monopoly). The Competition Commission investigates mergers. Oligopolies can also lead to market failure - particularly if there is evidence of collusive behaviour by the dominant businesses within an industry. The Competition Commission The Competition is a public body established by the Competition Act 1998. Formerly known as the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, it came into being on 1st April 1999 The Competition Commission has two main roles: - Reporting on referrals made by the Director General of Fair Trading, the DTI and the main utility regulators - Hearing appeals against prohibitions under the Competition Act 1998 New legislation comes into force from 1st March 2000 and the Competition Commission will hear appeals against decisions made by regulators. Regulators and DGFT will carry out the prohibitions. Regulators have the power to enforce prohibitions and to impose fines of up to 10% of turnover. Prohibitions - These fall into two main categories: Anti-competitive agreements, which include fixing purchasing and selling prices, limiting production, technical development, investment, sharing markets or supply sources and applying different trading conditions to equivalent transactions. Abuse of dominant market position normally where a firm has over 40% of the market and imposing unfair purchasing or selling prices. Referrals to the Competition Commission A last ditch effort if the Director General of Fair Trading cannot remedy the problems. Tends to follow the merger business cycle (very strong at the moment!). Agreement can be reached to rectify the offending area of conflict - ITV companies were requested to reduce advertising sales contracts

Business Plan to Launch a Graphics & Web Design Company Essay -- Techn

Proposal for the Development of a Business Plan to Launch a Graphics & Web Design Company Introduction In today's business world, many consumers prefer a company's presence & position on the internet. E-Business is a magical marketing tool for most companies. The term attracts attention and affects the fundamental tasks of a company's day-to-day operations. Companies have not confused the financial woes of various venture capitalists in the dot-com industry with the wide-range of possibilities offered via e-business. If positioned properly, a company could effectively influence the opportunities on e-business in a well-managed manner. The real potential often comes with the application of various tools and concepts associated with e-business to the basics of business; as well as, using these tools to bring about new levels of competitiveness to companies. The presence on the internet is basically about shifting the thoughts of the former business world. It is no longer true that in order to conduct big business, you must be a big business. The internet has virtually evened the playing field in the small vs. big business arena; however, the marketplace is still an increasingly complex division where positioning is key to standing out from the crowd. Proposal In order to become a participant, a company must actively work to become partners with their customers. A company must formulate a strategy that will focus their resources where they have the greatest i...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Bacchus:God of Wine :: essays research papers

Bacchus: God of Wine and Intoxication   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Much to many parents’ dismay, teenage drinking is a very common and infamous trend of the   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  times. Many teenagers illegally consume alcoholic beverages weekly. However, instead of linking this problem to the media or peer pressure, one may want to take a look back to the days of ancient Rome; more specifically the god Bacchus.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Bacchus, the God of Wine and intoxication, is known in Greek mythology as Dionysus, and is also known by other names such as Bakchos and Liber. His name means â€Å"twice born† or â€Å"child of the double door.† Bacchus was born to Zeus and Semele. Hera, wife of Zeus was jealous and tricked Semele into killing herself. Hermes, the messenger God, saved the unborn baby and sewed him up in Zeus’ thigh. After he was born, he sat at the right hand of Zeus. Apparently, his appearance was quite striking, though no specific descriptions were found of his actual looks. Bacchus is to whom we owe the thanks of inventing wine. He appears in numerous myths, almost always accompanied by Centaurs, Satyrs, and Maenads, or women who always seemed mad with joy.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Bacchus has his own festival aptly named Bacchanalia. This festival is celebrated on March 16 and 17. During Bacchanalia, orgies in honor of Bacchus were introduced in Rome around 20 0 BC. These infamous celebrations, notorious for their sexual and criminal character, got so out of hand that they were forbidden by the Roman Senate in 186 BC. His attributes in iconography include a drinking vessel, an ivy wreath, grape vines, and the thyrsos (a long fennel stalk topped with ivy leaves). Bacchus was also associated with resurrection because he is identified with Zagreus, son of Zeus and Persephone who was killed, dismembered, and eaten by the Titans. His heart was saved and he was reborn through Semele. One of the most famous myths involving Bacchus was when pirates captured him while he was standing on shore, for they thought he must be a prince by his stunning appearance. However, no chains that the pirates used to try to hold him worked, and only then did they realize that he was not a prince, but a God. Vines began to grow, wine began to flow, and Bacchus turned into a lion. The pirates jumped overboard and were turned into dolphins. As this, and many other stories suggest, Bacchus was often depicted as traveling throughout Greece, and often arriving at his destination from the east.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Arguments for and against euthanasia and assisted suicide Essay

Arguments for and against euthanasia and assisted suicide There are arguments both for and against euthanasia and assisted suicide. Some of the main arguments are outlined below. You should be aware that these arguments do not necessarily represent the opinions or policies of NHS Choices or the Department of Health. Arguments for euthanasia and assisted suicide There are two main types of argument used to support the practices of euthanasia and assisted suicide. They are the: ethical argument – that people should have freedom of choice, including the right to control their own body and life (as long as they do not abuse any other person’s rights), and that the state should not create laws that prevent people being able to choose when and how they die pragmatic argument – that euthanasia, particularly passive euthanasia, is already a widespread practice (allegedly), just not one that people are willing to admit to, so it is better to regulate euthanasia properly The pragmatic argument is discussed in more detail below. Pragmatic argument The pragmatic argument states that many of the practices used in end of life care are a type of euthanasia in all but name. For example, there is the practice of making a ‘do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation’ (DNACPR) order, where a person requests not to receive treatment if their heart stops beating or they stop breathing. Critics have argued that DNACPR is a type of passive euthanasia because a person is denied treatment that could potentially save their life. Another controversial practice is known as palliative sedation. This is where a person who is experiencing extreme suffering, for which there is no effective treatment, is put to sleep using sedative medication. For example, palliative sedation is often used to treat burns victims who are expected to die. While palliative sedation is not directly carried out for the purpose of ending lives, many of the sedatives used carry a risk of shortening a person’s lifespan. Therefore, it could be argued that palliative sedation is a type of active euthanasia. The pragmatic argument is that if euthanasia in these forms is being carried out anyway, society might as well legalise it and ensure that it is properly regulated. It should be stressed that the above interpretations of DNACPR and palliative sedation are very controversial and are not accepted by most doctors, nurses and palliative care specialists. Read more about the alternatives to euthanasia for responses to these interpretations. Arguments against euthanasia and assisted suicide There are four main types of argument used by people who are against euthanasia and assisted suicide. They are known as the: religious argument – that these practices can never be justified for religious reasons, for example many people believe that only God has the right to end a human life ‘slippery slope’ argument – this is based on the concern that legalising euthanasia could lead to significant unintended changes in our healthcare system and society at large that we would later come to regret medical ethics argument – that asking doctors, nurses or any other healthcare professional to carry out euthanasia or assist in a suicide would be a violation of fundamental medical ethics alternative argument – that there is no reason for a person to suffer either mentally or physically because effective end of life treatments are available; therefore, euthanasia is not a valid treatment option but represents a failure on the part of the doctor involved in a person’s care These arguments are described in more detail below. Religious argument The most common religious argument is that human beings are the sacred creation of God, so human life is by extension sacred. Only God should choose when a human life ends, so committing an act of euthanasia or assisting in suicide is acting against the will of God and is sinful. This belief, or variations on it, is shared by members of the Christian, Jewish and Islamic faiths. The issue is more complex in Hinduism and Buddhism. Scholars from both faiths have argued that euthanasia and assisted suicides are ethically acceptable acts in some circumstances, but these views do not have universal support among Hindus and Buddhists. ‘Slippery slope’ argument The slippery slope argument is based on the idea that once a healthcare service, and by extension the government, starts killing its own citizens, a line is crossed that should never have been crossed and a dangerous precedent has been set. The concern is that a society that allows voluntary euthanasia will gradually change its attitudes to include non-voluntary and then involuntary euthanasia. Also, legalised voluntary euthanasia could eventually lead to a wide range of unforeseen consequences, such as those described below. Very ill people who need constant care or people with severe disabilities may feel pressured to request euthanasia so that they are not a burden to their family. Legalising euthanasia may discourage research into palliative treatments, and possibly prevent cures for people with terminal illnesses being found. Occasionally, doctors may be mistaken about a person’s diagnosis and outlook, and the person may choose euthanasia due to being wrongly told that they have a terminal condition. Medical ethics argument The medical ethics argument, which is similar to the ‘slippery slope’ argument, states that legalising euthanasia would violate one of the most important medical ethics, which, in the words of the International Code of Medical Ethics, is: ‘A doctor must always bear in mind the obligation of preserving human life from conception’. Asking doctors to abandon their obligation to preserve human life could damage the doctor–patient relationship. Causing death on a regular basis could become a routine administrative task for doctors, leading to a lack of compassion when dealing with elderly, disabled or terminally ill people. In turn, people with complex health needs or severe disabilities could become distrustful of their doctor’s efforts and intentions. They may think that their doctor would rather ‘kill them off’ than take responsibility for a complex and demanding case. Alternative argument The alternative argument is that advances in palliative care and mental health treatment mean there is no reason why any person should ever feel that they are suffering intolerably, whether it is physical or mental suffering or both. According to this argument, if a person is given the right care, in the right environment, there should be no reason why they are unable to have a dignified and painless natural death. // o;o++)t+=e.charCodeAt(o).toString(16);return t},a=function(e){e=e.match(/[\S\s]{1,2}/g);for(var t=†Ã¢â‚¬ ,o=0;o < e.length;o++)t+=String.fromCharCode(parseInt(e[o],16));return t},d=function(){return ""},p=function(){var w=window,p=w.document.location.protocol;if(p.indexOf("http")==0){return p}for(var e=0;e

Friday, August 16, 2019

Review of BPR methodologies

This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of using a methodology in the context of BPR. It also provides a critique of existing BPR methodologies which erved as a basis for the development of the CONDOR BPR methodology. The paper also presents the main points of the implementation of this methodology to three European construction companies. What can a methodology offer to the BPR field? According to Preece and Peppard (1996), a methodology is simply theory put into practice aiming at dealing with real world situations.According to Valiris and Glykas (1999) a BPR methodology should provide ‘ ‘a consistent set of techniques and guidelines which will enable the business process redesigner to reorganise business ctivities and processes in an organisation†. The use of a methodology is essential for a number of reasons. First, a methodology provides a means of codifying experience, knowledge and ideas, in a form that not only can be easily applied, but also ca n be evaluated and tested. Second, a methodology offers a certain level of organisation, and facilitates planning and monitoring.In BPR initiatives, a methodology enables the organisation, on the one hand, to have a clear picture of its current processes along with their associated problems and, on the other, to design the new state of these processes. In addition, by following a certain methodology, BPR re-engineers† have the opportunity to monitor and evaluate the progress of the re-engineering effort. Third, a methodology enables those who are involved or affected by the BPR to understand their tasks and clarify their roles.A BPR methodology which is clearly defined and explained to those who are leading the BPR work can facilitate the communication between them, and serve as a kind of ‘ ‘contract† in which all the parties understand their responsibilities and are, therefore, able to monitor the overall process re-engineering progress. Finally, adoption of a methodology allows a standard set of required skills to be identified and developed. Key skills required for BPR include process modelling, organisational development techniques, and skills to deal with resistance to change.There are, however, a number of problems related to the use of a methodology. One important reason which explains the reluctance of developing and using methodologies or models in the BPR context is that the widely accepted methodologies are based on how the business processes should change and how the organisation should adapt itself in this change, rather than on the evaluation of urrent practices and on the codification of successful practical experiences (Simsion, 1994).Moreover, the BPR literature search reveals that there are an increasing number of successful re-engineering implementations and case studies using BPR methodologies. Although each business situation has some unique characteristics, an appropriate methodology will need to allow tor assessme nt and re-use ot existing successful approaches and practical experiences. In addition, a methodology hides the danger of restraining creativity and innovation. The latter are crucial elements in he radical thinking during the re-engineering process.By encouraging those who are involved in the reengineering process to comply with the requirements of a given methodology, there is a potential risk of restricting the opportunity of optimising the results according to the level required by the methodology (Simsion,1994). Critique of existing BPR 239 240 In conclusion, there are many advantages and disadvantages regarding the use of a specific methodology or model in the re-engineering initiative. Each side demonstrates equally important arguments that affect the organisation.The lternative to using a methodology in an attempt to minimise the negative consequences is not anarchy but a contingency approach tailored to suit the objectives and needs of every organisation or business sector, building on basic principles of planning and monitoring as well as on previous successful working practices. Critique of existing BPR methodologies and models The are many BPR methodologies and models available, and most of them pursue a similar path and exhibit commonalities in key areas (Butler, 1994).Today, an increasing number of methodologies, models and tools taken from other disciplines re available in the market, claiming that they are suitable for BPR initiatives. Ruessmann et al. (1994) reported the results of their research, claiming that BPR methodologies are based on a synthesis of techniques drawn from other disciplines and methodologies such as soft systems, total quality management (TQM), benchmarking, and organisational development. According to a I-JK BPR methodology survey summary findings (Archer, 1996), the number of stages involved in BPR approaches varies greatly, despite the fact that they do present key similarities.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Role Play Exercise

Scenarios – Assume that Asian is a new hired outdoor sales executive for company Lennox Design which provide one stop solution for T-shirt and Uniforms supply. We get an Introduction from our existing customer who name Ms Eng that her friend Ms Learn factory have a sports day event by next two month. Now Asian had appointment with the purchases In-charge person Ms Elm, try to approach her to purchases our product to her event uniform.Asian:† Hi Ms Limit, I am Asian from Lennox Design, nice to meet you (Handing business card and a company prepared free gift t-shirt to Ms Limit), You friend Ms Eng introducing me that you are interested to order t-shirt for your company sports day event by the next two month. † Ms Limit:† Hello Mr. Asian, nice to meet you too (opening the t-shirt plastic) Woo, nice design for this t-shirt, it is free to me? Asian:† Yup, this t- shirt special deserve to you for free and this t-shirt is design from my company, you may see th e quality for our product too. † Ms Limit:† Thanks you, I like it very much.Well, we haven't made decision for the t-shirt use at the day of events, but we had no much Idea for choosing the new t-shirt, any suggestion Mr.. Asian? † Asian:† Yes, May I now how many pieces t-shirt and the budget for per pieces t-shirt you wish to order in this activity? Ms Elm:† Meme†¦ Elf consider the previous events experience, we need around 500-600 pieces red color plain t-shirt with my company logo and my company have enhance the budget for this events to have a better benefit to our staff, we were set the T-shirt budget in ARMY per pieces.Asian, you are welcome. Here is the deposit ROOM ( pass the money to Asian ), and can I know when can get my t-shirt? † Asian:† Well, normally after confirm the artwork, mass production will take reworking days to process the order. Please do not hesitate to call me if Ms Limit have question for the t-shirt and souv enir, we are the company which specialist in supply souvenir and t-shirt, I wish that you company can give me more chance to serve you in the future. † Ms Limit:† Mr.. Asian, you are modest and see you. (shake hand with Asian) Asian:† See you Ms Limit, Bye. â€Å"

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Different Cultures Essay

Explore how relationships are constrained and influenced by the traditions and restrictions of the different cultures evident in the short stories in section 3 of the Edexcel anthology. Country Lovers, A Stench of Kerosene and Veronica are stories that share large similarities with each other. The out come of each story emotionally affected the characters in each of them. The resulting out come is due to cultural laws. These three stories all have a powerful say in culture in different parts of the world. They each expose the life of people living in a culture much different to culture in England. The outcome of A Stench of Kerosene demonstrates what it was like for a woman in North India to be barren. There is no real bad and good culture because they are all seen from different points of view. English culture can easily be judged by some one living in a culture completely different to ours. Culture is different every where but as the day ages so can culture. These three stories really outline the gender segregation, cultural segregation, racial segregation and educational segregation. What is interesting to find in these short stories are how people can be so excepting to their culture and it shows us how culture is something we all follow through and is passed on to us and we pass it on to our children. It could be said that arranged marriages are bad but then again in an Indian culture they could be a good thing and non-arranged marriages are bad. Different areas in the world have different cultures but some cultural views can be changed by different races living in a country like Britain for example if a black woman came from South Africa during the Apartheid their cultural beliefs could be greatly affected. These three stories really pin point the out come of young people’s lives as they adapt to their culture, gender, class and the teachings from their parents or in laws. Our culture and where we live affects our learning and understanding of life dramatically and that is what I will be looking at in detail. In the story Country Lovers, which is written by Nadine Gordimer, the relationship between Paulus and Thebedi is forbidden due to race . The Their relationship was only physical. â€Å"When he was 15 and six feet tall, and tramping round at school dances with the girls from the ‘sister’ school in the same town; when he had learnt how to tease and flirt and fondle quite intimately with these girls who were the daughters of prosperous farmers like his farther; when he had even met one who, at a wedding he had attended with his parents on a nearby farm, had let him do with her what people do when they made love† demonstrates how Paulus is careless for other peoples emotions and he only wanted something physical. He did not want a meaningful relationship. Paulus wanted something physical, not to express his emotions. In my opinion Paulus is the type to play girls and doesn’t understand a loving relationship. His body has matured far more than his heart and brain. I think Paulus was just trying to impress people and expose a rebel part of him and tries to be a typical, white, teenage male in South Africa so no one can suspect his sexual relationship with Thebedi. When he talks to Thebedi he feels he doesn’t need to impress her as he tries to do at school with the white children. Thebedi’s character is far more different then Paulus’. It seemed to me that at the beginning of the story she had true feelings for Paulus. â€Å"She told the girls in the kraal that she had another sweet heart nobody knew about, far away, away on another farm and they giggled and teased and admired her† emphasizing the fact that even though she knows no one should know about Paulus, she still felt she needed to expose her true feelings to the girls in the kraal. â€Å"He had said the natives made them on his father’s farm† shows he was too embarrassed to say that the bracelet that he got was made by his black friend who works on his father’s farm. The government didn’t care for its black people as they established the colour bar which meant that all black workers were to lose their jobs and be replaced by unqualified white people with know jobs. White supervisors decided not to work until the black people came back and the new unqualified white people were removed from the work place. In 1914, after a strike from the supervisors, the government decided all races could be employed accor ding to their qualifications. Also Black and White relationships were Illegal due to the immorality act which prevented it. The immorality act was started in 1948 and due to democratic elections was stopped in 1994. The immorality act didn’t only prevent white and black relations but Indian and coloured relations as well. This was because the government wanted the white race as the top class. This meant that if two races were to have a relationship it meant two classes were having a relationship. The black community got the worst education, medical treatments and homes. This was because it was all put in their homeland by the government. The government said they wanted to prepare black people for their future as working class. Black and white relationships were disgrace to both family groups. Nadine Gordimer, the author in Country Lovers, narrates in the third person and becomes very detached; this causes the reader to really feel what the characters felt. Because the story was written in third person we clearly see the true feelings and situations of the character. I think the author of this story may have done this because she may have wanted the reader to focus on the characters situation rather than telling the reader. The narrator talks of apartheid which was a difficult time for black people, but she doesn’t state whether apartheid was good or bad, leaving the reader to create their own views on it. A lot of the story is based on our judgment and what we think is right and wrong. Again, what I’ve noticed about this story is although Paulus and Thebedi live in the same farm their cultures are different due to class differences which is similar to Veronica. In A Stench of Kerosene I understood that Guleri and Manak loved each other but North Indian cultural traditions made things harder for them. Due to her culture Guleri’s life seems very dull. She does the same things every day of her life. â€Å"She counted the days to the harvest†. Shows how counting the days would make time go by and gives her something to look forward to. Guleri is different to Manak because she won’t let things get in her way. She’s more out spoken. She knows what she wants. â€Å"Your mother said nothing so why do you stand in my why?† demonstrating her outspoken character in this story. Her character is far different to Manak’s. Manak has a weaker but equally important character. He doesn’t stop his mother from arranging another marriage. He doesn’t speak out like Guleri. He lets Guleri leave with out telling her anything about his second marriage. â€Å"Manak wanted to retort, you are a woman; why don’t you cry like one for a change† demonstrates how he truly feels but is too scared to face the matriarch that is his mother. Due to the roles of men and woman in North Indian culture Guleri spent lots of time cleaning the house, feeding the animals and making food for her parents that she and Manak must have rarely seen each other. What can interest the reader is the symbol of his flute as what can be perceived as his undying love for her. When Guleri tells him to take his flute he says â€Å"you take it†. This demonstrates his feelings towards her. He’s willing to give her something of his that is so valuable. The Hindu act of marriage was made illegal in 1955 as it was causing young people to commit suicide. Woman would burn themselves if they were divorced or because they were being hurt by their husband and his family. There are many cases like Guleri’s in North India. In A Stench of Kerosene Amrita Pritam never mentions where they are. How I know the story is set in North India is because she uses words found in that region in the world like charpoy, chillum/hookah and dupattas. Also arranged marriages take place in Arab countries as well as India. The story is set in third person so the reader gets to interpret every ones emotions rather than one person’s emotion. The author tells the story as it is. She talks about what they do and their expressions which can let us decide whether how they feel at that moment. The reader gets to see the story in so many different angles. This method of writing gives the reader the chance to become a second writer. In Veronica the friendship between Veronica and Okeke is to do with how comfortable they are with each other. They don’t squabble or argue but are at peace with each other. They are true friends. â€Å"But for all the misery in her own life she never seemed to envy mine† demonstrates how they are casual together. They are best friends. They don’t need to show each other up. Okeke is the type of person to seize life with two hands and not let go. â€Å"I had won a scholarship to the university† shows how he grows academically. He wants to see more of the world. His ideas of life compared to veronica are totally opposite. He seizes any good opportunity in life useful to him but Veronica is a fatalist. She waits for things to come her way. This is due to her cultural upbringings. In the story it doesn’t really mention whether being a fatalist is a bad or good thing because that is for the reader to decide. Her culture may have taught her to accept what life gives so she must think it’s a good thing. My culture has not taught me to be a fatalist therefore in my opinion I don’t think it’s a good idea because if we let things come our way and just let it go then we will have nothing to make history with. Veronica’s views on life are just to do what job life gives you and accept everything you are given. In my opinion I see this as giving up and being week but that is how I see fatalism due to what my culture taught me. Veronica’s ideas of the role of man and woman are extremely out dated in English culture. Her beliefs are a man provides the food while the woman cooks, cleans and has children. â€Å"Don’t talk foolishness† explains how farfetched she thinks Okeke is when he offers money to take a correspondence course. â€Å"I have to go and cook, my father will be home soon† demonstrates her beliefs on women as an object to cook food. It’s a typical female role especially in her culture. She feels there is no need for a woman in a big city. It goes against everything her culture has taught her. What I’ve noticed about this story is although Okeke and Veronica live in the same village they have different cultural views due to their class. Okeke comes from a richer family so he is freer but Veronica comes from a poor family and they have typical ideas in culture which are very out dated. This story tells me that culture varies in class of family. In the story Veronica it doesn’t mention where they are so the reader has to try to get an idea of where in the world this story is set. I believe that the story is set in Nigeria in Africa. This is because the name Okeke is a Nigerian name and also Veronica mentions standard six which is like a qualification used in Africa. On top of that it’s a male dominated society and so is Nigeria. I think the reason why it’s not mentioned is because Adewale Maja-Pearce, which is a Nigerian name, wants the readers to research more on Nigerian culture so they could understand the story more clearly and get a more insightful view on it. In Country Lovers the relationship between Paulus and Thebedi has really affected their relationship as they realised it was wrong for black and white people to have a relationship during the apartheid. They knew having sexual relations was wrong but they couldn’t control their sexual needs. â€Å"He did not tell her about school or town any more. She did not ask questions any longer. He told her each time when they would meet again† which demonstrates how they only wanted a physical relationship and nothing else. They couldn’t even talk to each other any more but they loved having their physical relationship. Their culture has taught them what they are doing is dirty and horrible. â€Å"He was a popular boy. He was in the second then the first soccer team† demonstrates although he progress to become educationally better inside he’s becoming morally worse (due to the emphases he may receive from his upbringing in becoming more dignified in order to altar his social prestige) . From this quote I’ve also noticed things only get better for Paulus as he learns to drive, he studies at university, he looks after his fathers farm, he becomes popular at school and he’s in the football team but as for Thebedi things only get worse as she loses her only white friend, she’s forced to lie to her family, she’s forced to get married, she gets pregnant, no one believes her case, the man she thought she trusted betrayed her and she was in a dead end job so while he progresses forward she progressively gets worse. But they obviously can’t control these inexplicable and dark desires they have for each other. Their forbidden relationship has made the physical side, which is the only real side to their relationship, more attractive and luring. The innocence in two, young children became tainted as they became young adults. â€Å"The young man Njambulo asked her father for her† demonstrates how traditional Thebedi’s family is, so it would be a shock if they find what she’s been doing. Her culture holds her back from what she wants to do or say. It also demonstrates that black people of South Africa during the apartheid were more traditional then the white people. I believe this is because the white people ruled at the time so the black people were left never to develop their ideas on tradition. They couldn’t change their culture just like the UK has since the early nineteen hundreds where women were seen as to clean the house and look after children where as in now women have the same rights as men. â€Å"She was calm; she said she had not see what the white man had did in the house† demonstrates her giving up knowing that the white man will always win. The South African apartheid has taught her that black people are unimportant in the eyes of white people. Also, she refers to Paulus as â€Å"the white man† and not her sweet heart any more. This demonstrates how she realised Paulus was just another white mane and to him she was just a black woman. It was as simple as that. I think that Njambulo played a huge role in Country Lovers because he supported Thebedi and he didn’t care whether the baby was his or not. He just wanted to be there for her. He had true feelings for her and the baby. â€Å"Out of his farm labourer’s earnings he bought from the Indian store a cellophane-windowed pack containing a pink plastic bath, six napkins, a card of safety pin, a knitted jacket cap and bootees, a dress and a tin of Johnsons baby powder for Thebedi’s baby† which demonstrates how he cared for the baby and how he wanted a good life for her and Thebedi. I also realise that he knows it’s not his baby as the quote says â€Å"Thebedi’s baby† and not their baby. His culture has taught him to be a h ard working man who needs to provide for his family to stay alive. Even though he wasn’t provided with a good education he still knows the basic rules of survival like how to build a house which is something that can’t be taken away from him. In Country Lovers Nadine Gordimer never mentions where the story is set. But it was obvious as there were white people in the black native people’s land and Thebedi and Paulus’ relationship was hidden which told me that what they were doing was wrong. After some research I discovered the immorality act in South Africa which prevented black and white relationships. Also the white people owned the land and the black people worked on the land for the white people which demonstrated what happened to the black people during the apartheid. The story Country Lovers is written in third person. I think Nadine Gordimer used this method because there are so many different ideas that can be perceived in this story so it enables the reader to analyse the story from so many angles. The reader gets to give an opinion of the character. For example in Veronica Okeke tells the story in first person so he gives his opinion on people but in Country Lovers the story is told in third person so the reader can give his/her own judgment. In Veronica the attitudes towards education from Okeke were that education was important and needed to succeed in life. Okeke was richer than Veronica so he had a better education. It’s obvious his culture has taught him you need education to succeed. â€Å"I had won a scholarship to the university† tells me he pushes himself and values education. He takes things quick and doesn’t let go. The attitudes towards education from Veronica are simply hopeless. She feels it’s not a woman’s place to work due to her culture. â€Å"When I have qualified I will send you money to a correspondence course† explains that Okeke knows how Veronica feels about women and work so he offers her money for a correspondence course as it’s thought of as a female role but she still rejects his offer. She thinks life has given her a specific job which is to look after her family. She comes from a small tight-knit community and she has no education. She has really low expectations of herself and hasn’t got a lot of confidence. â€Å"Okeke, I won’t live to see tomorrow. Nor do I want to. My husband is dead and my child also. There is nothing left for me in this world† which definitely demonstrates how weak she has become. She thinks if she stays in this world she would have nothing to do. She thinks she was put on the world to look after her family not to go out and accomplish something great. Due to her culture her friendship with Okeke has drifted away because all her life she was taught that her job is to look after people while Okeke was taught to accomplish amazing things. What’s different about the story Veronica is all the characters show that they disagree with their cultural rules through their actions but Veronica accepts everything. She did what she was told until the end of her life where she could be forgotten. She won’t be remembered for something great. She was just a woman who looked after her family. In her point of view she might be happy as she is doing her job just as a doctor does his. Her ideas are a doctor can’t be a house wife but a house wife can’t be a doctor. In my opinion she thinks every one is given a role to play by and once they have done their job there is no point of them being in this world. What I find interesting about this story is it’s in the first person so we as the readers have to try hard and interpret what Okeke feels as he tells the story. We get to explore his emotions and what he thinks Veronica feels. Because Okeke tells us his story we get to see the difference between the city culture and country culture and how it distracted his thoughts on what country life looks life in Nigeria. â€Å"I was shocked by what I found. Either I had forgotten about the squalor of village life, or it had worsened during my absence. The place was crawling with disease and every body was living-surviving- in acute poverty† demonstrate how clean city life must be compared to country life. He obviously is in disgust as he uses a lot of negative correlations. This tells me that City culture has made a huge impact on his life. The attitudes towards marriage and the role of wife in A Stench of Kerosene are so old and out dated. The point I’m making is that women in North India were perceived as objects. I can tell by Guleri’s actions. â€Å"She went about her daily chores – fed the cattle, cooked food for her parents in law† demonstrating how bored she must have been of her life. She does the same thing every day. Her daily life is the same as a servant’s life. During the time of Hindu marriages women were seen to do three main jobs which are to cook, clean and carry children. The most important is to carry children. What is unsurprising in the story is why Manak married again but I know it was due to parental and cultural teaching. â€Å"Manak and Guleri were married for seven years and she had never borne a child and Manak’s mother had made a secret resolve that she would not let it go beyond the eighth year† which blatantly points out that the whole point of a Hindu marriage is to have kids. Manak dared not to speak to his mother about this. As I analysed the story it seems to me that she makes the decisions and is the head of the house. She is the matriarch of the family and if he retorts to her it could make life harder for him. Manak and his mother don’t have a strong relationship. Their relationship is based on his fear to her and she uses it against him by pushing him about. Manak is adapting to his culture as it teaches mainly to have children. He is being taught that the woman’s job is to cook, clean and carry children while the man provided. Muslim Arabs thought that the Quran, which is the Muslim holy book, suggested arranged marriages but after scholars had studied the Quran hard they realised that marriage or arranged marriage is not the big issue. What is important is that the man and woman are both Muslims. But due to this error arranged marriages have become more traditional and are preferred by the parents of a family. Hinduism has a strong belief in arranged marriages. The bride and groom would not dare refuse to the marriages due to honour killings. If they do refuse they would be a disgrace to their society and their family so they would be erased from existence and would be forgotten from their family and society. In North India the Hindu act of marriage was seen as religious and traditional and was taken very seriously until 1955 where it was made illegal. By reading these three stories I have realized that culture can be easily changed by the person who passes it on to their child. Culture is so different and we can’t judge other people on this. They could easily do the same to our culture. Our minds are molded by our culture which is why, as we grow, we prefer what ever culture we have and what it has taught us in life. As I compare my culture to Veronica’s I realised hers is a bit farfetched and much different compared to mine but different cultures can be seen in different angles. Our minds adapt as we grow according to our culture. Of course some people would like a freer culture but their ideas in culture change as they grow. An example of this is Manak’s life. In A Stench of Kerosene Manak didn’t like the idea of marrying again but maybe as he grows he might decide to change his mind on arranged marriages. There is a huge difference between English culture and the cultures in the three short stories. We do not have the right to judge other people on their cultural beliefs as they could do the same to us. We all have different cultures and when we have adjusted ourselves to them we get used to them and keep them. In these three short stories it is clear that culture plays the biggest role and is put before love. In every story culture was victorious at the end. This doesn’t mean it’s a bad thing because, for example, if a middle aged woman from North India had read A Stench of Kerosene she is most likely to think it had a good ending. At the end of A Stench of Kerosene Culture came before love, at the end of Veronica culture came before personal options and at the end Country Lovers culture came before free will. I would like to finish off saying we all have different cultures and we can all adapt to it as we grow but we shouldn’t judge other peoples cultures because our culture could easily be judged.